Comprehensive Immigration Reform – The History Of Immigration Reform In America – 1790 to 2009

UPDATE: Review of Judge Bolton’s Decision begins here: The Immigration Debate: The Arizona Law – Judge Bolton’s Decision (Part 1) 

Enough already with the race baiting from the left …..

Arizona’s new law is neither unconstitutional nor does Arizona’s new law call for racial profiling.

For a discussion of Arizona’s new “immigration law” see  https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/the-immigration-debate-arizonas-law-facts-from-fiction-are-you-tired-of-being-lied-to/     or https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/14/el-debate-de-inmigracion-la-ley-de-arizona-hechos-de-la-ficcion-%c2%bfesta-cansado-de-que-nos-mientan/ 

THE CURRENT POLITICAL SPIN

The left is trying to create a poltical advantage and distract the American public from the real issues of unemployment a faltering economy and rising crime rates with fabricated claims of racism in the new Arizona law, a law which is incorrectly being called an “immigration law” when in fact the law focuses on the prevention of criminal acts and the enforcement of exisiting criminal laws. See: https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/the-immigration-debate-arizonas-law-facts-from-fiction-are-you-tired-of-being-lied-to/     or  https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/14/el-debate-de-inmigracion-la-ley-de-arizona-hechos-de-la-ficcion-%c2%bfesta-cansado-de-que-nos-mientan/ 

The race baiters are not interested in uniting our neighborhoods, healing our wounds or bringing people together, for making our Country a safer place for all, for bringing an end to the illegal drug smuggling or sexual trafficking trade, for ending 21st century slavery ……. they are hoping to bring destruction, to destroy communities and to divide the people for their own personal gain.  

Earliest History of America’s Immigration Laws

The United States Constitution was adopted in 1789. Congress adopted the first “immigration law” one year later in 1790 when it granted citizenship to the first “immigrants”. Subsequent legislation passed in the 1790′s required prospective citizens to renounce or give up former allegiances to other “Sovereign Nations” and to surrender titles of nobility granted by foreign monarchs prior to being granted citizenship in our great country. 

In 1798 Congress authorized the President to expel “dangerous” aliens in the Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act. 

The Naturalization Act of 1802 expanded the provisions of the 1795 law and created a “five-year legal residency requirement” prior to granting an immigrant citizenship. Then in 1808, Congress enacted a law forbidding the importation of slaves.

No official immigration records were kept until 1820, but it is estimated that 250,000 immigrants, 1/4 of a million people, arrived in the United States between 1790 and 1820 – the 1st 30 years of the Constitutionally governed United States. It is estimateed that an additional 10 million immigrants came to American between 1820 and 1875 when the US passed its first “restrictive” immigration law.

A total of 10 million 250 thousand people “immigrated” to the United States between 1790 and 1875. The first ”restrictive immigration law” in 1875 excluded ”convicts” and “prostitutes”, the 1st classes of individuals to be denied “lawful entry” into the United States. Those same “class” restrictions continue to this day. 

In 1903 the United States added “anarchists” to the list of those to be “denied entry” into the United States. An anarchist is someone who who seeks to overturn, by violence, all constituted forms and institutions of society and government, with no purpose of establishing any other system of order in the place of that destroyed. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/anarchists

In 1918 Congress expanded this exclusion when it enacted the “Anarchist Act” which expanded the definition of those to be denied entry to include,  ”a person who promotes disorder or excites revolt against any established rule, law, or custom.”. The Act of 1918 did not only deny admission to the United States but also provided a basis to deport “anarchists” out of the Country.

The Act specifically identified the following people

            (a) aliens who are anarchists;

(b) aliens who advise, advocate, or teach, or who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, society, or group, that advises, advocates, or teaches opposition to all organized government;
(c) aliens who believe in, advise, advocate, or teach, or who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, association, society, or group, that believes in, advises, advocates, or teaches:

(1) the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law, or
(2) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific individuals or of officers generally, of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character, or
(3) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or
(4) sabotage;
(d) aliens who write, publish, or cause to be written or published, or who knowingly circulate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly cause to be circulated, distributed, printed, or displayed, or knowingly have in their possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, or display any written or printed matter, advising, advocating, or teaching opposition to all government, or advising, advocating, or teaching:

(1) the ovethrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law, or
(2) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers of the Government of the United States or of any other government, or
(3) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or
(4) sabotage;
(e) aliens who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, association, society, or group, that writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to be written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that has in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, or display, any written or printed matter of the character in subdivision (d).  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchist_Exclusion_Act

Limits on Immigration- Immigration Quotas – The 1920′s

In the 1920′s Congress implemented the first numerical controls on immigration. Enacted first, as a temporary measure, the 1921 Quota Law marked a major shift in the U.S. approach to immigration control. The law limited immigration from each foreign nation to 3% of the number of foreign-born persons of that nationality residing in the U.S. as of the 1910 census.

The total quota for the Country was 357,000 new immigrants per year.

In 1924, Congress further restricted immigration by reducing the immigration quota from 3% of foreign-born persons under the 1910 census to 2% of the foreign-born under the 1890 census. This change cut the total quota of new immigrants per year to 164,667.

During the 1930′s and the “Great Depression” more people emigrated out of (left) the United States than “immigrated” into the Country. In the entire decade of the 1930′s only 500,000 ( 1/2 million) immigrants entered the United States. In the year 1932 only 35,000 (thirty five thousand) immigrants entered the country while 100,000 (one hundred thousand) left or emigrated out of the country.

In the 1940′s the United States negotoated the first of its “temporary worker” programs with Mexico. 

In a 1948  response to problems created by the devastation of Europe in World War II and the Nazi Holocaust, Congress adopted the Displaced Persons Act that allowed for the admission into the U.S. of some 400,000 non-citizens. 

The Sovereign Right To Regulate Immigration

All sovereign nations have the right to regulate immigration.

See: The Human Rights Library of the University of Minnesota: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

“The broad power of the federal government to regulate the admission, removal, and naturalization of non-citizens has its roots in the early history of the United States. Modern statutes, Supreme Court decisions, and federal agency regulations attest to the plenary (plenary = unlimited or full) nature of this power.” http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

THE SOURCE OF THE FEDERAL POWER 

Throughout the history of the United States the Supreme Court has upheld all manner of federal statutes regulating immigration. By contrast, Supreme Court decisions preclude states from passing legislation that directly impinges on this area of federal dominion. The Supreme Court’s basis for action is clear when the area regulated is naturalization. Article 1, § 8, clause 4, of the United States Constitution specifically grants Congress the power to establish a “uniform Rule of Naturalization.” By expressly allocating this power to Congress, the Constitution prevents the confusion that would result if individual states could bestow citizenship. The Constitution does not, however, explicitly provide that the power to deny admission or remove non-citizens rests with the federal government as opposed to state governments. In the early immigration cases the Supreme Court faced the problem of identifying the source of the federal government’s exclusive and plenary power over immigration. Ultimately the Supreme Court found the plenary power to be an inherent sovereign power. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

Early cases cite specific constitutional provisions to support the inference that the federal government possesses complete power over international relations, including immigration matters. In addition to citing the foreign commerce power, the Supreme Court in Nishimura Ekiu v. United States (Sup.Ct.1892) cites the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization; the power to declare war, and to provide and maintain armies and navies; and the power to make all laws necessary and proper. The Fong Yue Ting v. United States (Sup.Ct.1893) case adds the power to define and punish piracies, felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

The Migration and Importation Clause in Article I, § 9, clause 1, provides: “The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight….”. The specific limit on congressional power before 1808 could be construed to imply that after 1808, Congress would have power over migration and importation. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

The War Power, found in Article I, § 8, clause 11, is an additional source of federal control over immigration. The War Power gives Congress the authority to “declare war.” The War Power authorized the exclusion and expulsion of enemy aliens. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of such provisions in Ludecke v. Watkins (Sup.Ct.1948).

National Sovereignty

The United States Supreme Court ultimately found the source of the federal power to regulate immigration in a combination of international and constitutional legal principles. The Chinese Exclusion Case (Sup.Ct.1889) was the first case to hold that the federal power to exclude non-citizens is an incident of national sovereignty. The Court reasoned that every national government has the inherent authority to protect the national public interest. Immigration is a matter of vital national concern. Furthermore, it is the role of the federal government to oversee matters of national concern, while it is the province of the states to govern local matters. Therefore, the Court found that the inherent sovereign power to regulate immigration clearly resides in the federal government.

Subsequent cases reinforced national sovereignty as the source of federal power to control immigration and consistently reasserted the plenary and unqualified scope of this power.

Fong Yue Ting v. United States (Sup.Ct.1893) explicitly held that the power to expel or deport (now “remove”) non-citizens rests upon the same ground as the exclusion power and is equally “absolute and unqualified.”

“To be a sovereign nation, a people must have control over its territory. Without such control, a nation would be unable to govern itself and its borders effectively, and as a result, would be subject to the sovereignty of other nations. The power to regulate immigration is therefore inherent in the Constitution’s creation of a sovereign nation.” 

THE SCOPE OF THE FEDERAL POWER

To date there have been no successful challenges to federal legislation that refuses admission to classes of non-citizens or removes resident aliens. Federal immigration power thus appears limitless. Indeed, the Supreme Court has stated: “[O]ver no conceivable subject is the legislative power of Congress more complete.” Fiallo v. Bell (Sup.Ct.1977), Kleindienst v. Mandel, (Sup.Ct.1972), and Oceanic Steam Nav. Co. v. Stranahan (Sup.Ct.1909). Extreme judicial deference bears witness to the truth of this statement.

The United States Constitution & The United Nations Charter

The Constitution and the U.N. Charter have been dismissed as grounds for opposing federal immigration power. The federal courts and immigration authorities have without much consideration rejected an assertion in Hitai v. INS (2d Cir.1965), Vlissidis v. Anadell (7th Cir.1959), and Matter of Laurenzano (BIA 1970) that the immigration quota system is inconsistent with the U.N. Charter. The Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of federal statutes that detain non-citizens for the brief period necessary for their removal proceedings (Demore v. Kim (Sup.Ct.2003)) and that exclude non-citizens on the basis of race (Chinese Exclusion Case (1889)) and political belief (Kleindienst v. Mandel (Sup.Ct.1972)). Moreover, excluded non-citizens have no constitutional right to a hearing. Shaughnessy v. Mezei (Sup.Ct.1953). Mezei also determined that excludable non-citizens can be indefinitely detained if their country of origin refuses to accept them.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE THREE BRANCHES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN REGULATING IMMIGRATION

The plenary and unqualified power of the federal government to regulate immigration, naturalization, and related foreign policy belongs to Congress. The possible international consequences of decisions in this area have made the federal judiciary extremely reluctant to substitute its judgment for the legislature’s. Justice Jackson articulated the Court’s position in Harisiades v. Shaughnessy (Sup.Ct.1952): “[A]ny policy towards aliens is vitally and intricately interwoven with contemporaneous policies in regard to the conduct of foreign relations, the war power, and the maintenance of a republican form of government. Such matters are so exclusively entrusted to the political branches of government as to be largely immune from judicial inquiry or interference.” Subsequent decisions echo this sentiment. Since the judiciary poses no obstacle, Congress has been historically free to “exclude aliens altogether or prescribe the terms and conditions upon which they may enter and stay in this country.” Lapina v. Williams (Sup.Ct.1914).

For example, Congress exercised its plenary authority in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (“IIRIRA”) that facilitated the removal of non-citizens.

The Supreme Court and the Paths To Citizenship

The Fourteenth Amendment “contemplates two sources of citizenship, and two only, birth and naturalization. Citizenship by naturalization can only be acquired by naturalization under the authority and in the forms of law.” United States v. Wong Kim Ark (Sup.Ct.1898). As with exclusion and deportation (now “inadmissibility” and “removal”), the Supreme Court has accorded great deference to the naturalization guidelines set by Congress. In United States v. Ginsberg (1917) the Court stated, “An alien who seeks political rights as a member of this nation can rightfully obtain them only upon the terms and conditions specified by Congress. Courts are without authority to sanction changes or modifications; their duty is rigidly to enforce the legislative will….” In cases involving classifications in the naturalization process, the Court has given a near absolute presumption of validity to distinctions drawn by Congress.

Congress has been historically free to “exclude aliens altogether or prescribe the terms and conditions upon which they may enter and stay in this country.” Lapina v. Williams (Sup.Ct.1914).

The Executive Branch and Immigration

As in other areas of the law, the function of executive agencies in the field of immigration is to enforce the legislation passed by Congress. The Executive Branch is not empowered to create Immigration Policy.

A Brief History of 20th Century Immigration Law Reform 

THE 1952 ACT

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA) consolidated previous immigration laws into one coordinated statute. As amended, the 1952 Act provided the foundation for immigration law in effect today.

The 1952 Act retained the national origins quota and established a 150,000 person limit.

Within the quota system, four types of entrance preferences were established. First preference was given to those entrants with skills or experience needed by the U.S. economy. Those persons with close family relations to U.S. citizens or permanent residents received lower preferences.

It should be noted that spouses, children, and parents of U.S. citizens were not and are still not subject to the quota or preference system. For that reason, they are called “immediate relatives.”

Following the passage of the 1952 law a large increase in apprehensions of deportable non-citizens occurred. The Border Patrol, numbering just about 1,000 strong, apprehended 800,000 deportable non-citizens in 1952; in 1954, that number increased to one million.

THE 1965 AMENDMENTS

The 1965 amendments replaced the national origins formula with a limit of 20,000 on each country in the Eastern Hemisphere and an overall limit of 170,000 for that hemisphere. The law established a quota of 120,000 for the Western Hemisphere, without preferences or country limits to take effect in 1968. ( A total of 290,000 new “legal immigrants” were to be allowed per year).

The 1965 amendments abolished the old four-preference system and established in its place a seven-preference system for close relatives and those immigrants with needed occupational skills from the Eastern Hemisphere.

Spouses of U.S. citizens were permitted to immigrate without reference to the quota or preference system.

Under the preference system, unmarried adult children of U.S. citizens received highest preference; second preference was granted to spouses and unmarried children of permanent residents. The preference for immigrants of “exceptional ability” and those in “the professions” was changed from first to third. Other relatives of citizens and permanent residents received the fourth and fifth preferences. Sixth preference was given to needed workers. Seventh preference was allocated to refugees.

THE 1976 AMENDMENT

The 1976 amendment applied the Eastern Hemisphere preference system to the Western Hemisphere, both hemispheres were subject to the 20,000 per country limit and the seven preference system.

THE 1978 AMENDMENT

The 1978 amendment established a world-wide quota of 290,000 and applied the same per country limits and seven preference system to both hemispheres. This worldwide ceiling eliminated the hemisphere consideration and allowed visas to go where the need was greatest.

Illegal Immigration in the 1970′s

The number of deportable non-citizens, which fell in the 1950s, climbed rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, as did the number of total entries. In 1972, one half million deportable non-citizens were apprehended. By 1977, that annual figure had doubled. The Border Patrol had grown to a force of 2,400.

The Immigration Service estimated that, between undetected border crossings and violations of legal entry conditions, millions of undocumented non-citizens were living in the U.S. in 1974. In 1979 the Border Patrol apprehended one million deportable non-citizens. That year, the INS employed almost 11,000 personnel and had a 300 million dollar budget.

THE 1980 REFUGEE ACT

The Carter Administration asked for special legislation to deal with the issue of the “”Mariel Boat Lift” that delivered 100,000′s of Cubans to the shores of Florida. It later became evident that Fidel Castro, the Communist dictator in Cuba, had emptied his prisons and placed untold number of Cuban criminal felons on the boats with the non-criminal Cubans seeking asylum in the United States. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariel_boatlift . The boat lift began on April 1, 1980 and ended in October 1980.

Estimates vary on how many of the incoming immigrants were “undesirables” or former felons. The low estimate placed the number at 7,500 with a high estimate of 40,000 covicted felons. Congress adopted an official estimate of 12,500. Approximately 2700 of the immigrants were denied entry due to their criminal past.

The “boat lift” was depicted in the movie “Scarface”.

THE 1986 IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT (IRCA) 

In 1980 the United States Census Bureau counted 2,047,000 undocumented non-citizens in the country. Based on the Bureau of Census experience in miscounting other segments of the population, the Bureau had estimated that there were 5,965,000 undocumented persons in the country on census day April 1, 1980. 

The 1986 the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) dealt with the major problem of undocumented workers by imposing sanctions on employers while it legalized the status of undocumented entrants who had arrived prior to January 1, 1982.

In response to the demand for foreign agricultural labor, IRCA created a program that granted temporary and permanent resident status to qualified agricultural workers.

The IRCA did not substantially restructure the immigration law as it pertains to immigration quotas or the requirements for admission.

Another major goal of IRCA was improvement of enforcement and services. The act increased border patrol as well as other enforcement activities of the INS to deter unlawful entry of aliens into the U.S..

In exchange for the increased enforcement provisions of IRCA, Congress offered a broad amnesty for many undocumented non-citizens already present in the country. The one-time, limited amnesty program allowed qualified non-citizens who met its strict deadlines to obtain permanent resident status. To qualify, non-citizens were required to show that they had entered the United States before January 1, 1982, and had resided unlawfully and continuously in the United States from that date until the date they applied for amnesty. Non-citizens who entered with a valid nonimmigrant status that later expired could also qualify for amnesty by showing that their unlawful status was known to the U.S. government. Applicants were specifically required to (1) have been physically present in the U.S. since November 1986, except for “brief, casual, and innocent” absences; (2) meet most of the requirements of immigrant admissibility to the United States; (3) have not been convicted of any felony or of three or more misdemeanors committed in the United States; (4) have not assisted in any form of persecution; and (5) register for the draft, if required to do so.

Non-citizens who met these requirements and filed an application between May 5, 1987, and May 4, 1988, were granted temporary residence. After 18 months of temporary residence, the non-citizens had one year in which to apply for adjustment to permanent resident status or they would become undocumented once again. To adjust to permanent resident status, applicants were again required to meet the criteria for permanent residence and also meet minimal English and civics requirements.

IRCA mandated procedures to ensure strict confidentiality. The Act allowed voluntary organizations to receive applications and forward them to the INS. Whether a non-citizen applied through such an organization or directly to the INS, access to information in the applications was restricted to INS officers with no deportation responsibilities and the INS could only use the information to make a determination on the application or impose penalties for false statements.

Despite these precautions, response to the amnesty program was less enthusiastic than expected. The INS originally estimated that between two and four million applications would be filed by the almost 5.5 million illegals estimated to be in the Country, but when the program ended, only 1.4 million people had applied for amnesty.

A proposal to extend the application deadline passed the House of Representatives but died in the Senate, due to fears that an extension would send the message that the U.S. could not enforce its immigration laws. The program thus ended as planned on May 4, 1988.

Another concern in adopting IRCA was the potential adverse financial impact on the states. For this reason, IRCA included extensive provisions disqualifying newly legalized non-citizens (except Cuban/Haitian entrants) from receiving most federal public welfare assistance for five years. Appropriations were also included to compensate state and local governments for other public assistance and medical benefits conferred upon people granted amnesty, as well as for the costs of incarcerating undocumented non-citizens and “Mariel” Cubans.

IRCA also established a separate program for granting temporary and permanent status to qualified agricultural workers. This program was the result of agribusiness pressure for greater availability of such farm workers.

THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1990

In 1990, Congress passed a series of amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act, collectively referred to as the Immigration Act of 1990 (“1990 Act” also known as “IMMACT 90″).

The most visible feature of IMMACT 90 was the increase by approximately 35% in the numerical limitation system, or overall immigration allowed. IMMACT 90 established an annual limit for worldwide immigration of 700,000 for three years, after which it decreased to 675,000. Because other provisions of the 1990 Act allowed immigration of groups not counted in the 700,000, and a separate law permitted as many as 125,000 refugees to be legally admitted, the actual worldwide immigration limit was closer to 800,000.

This number represented a nearly 300% increase over the 290,000 immigrants allowed in 1978. 

The 1990 Act increased the allocation for both family-related and employee-related immigration. In addition, the new law created a separate basis by which “diversity” immigrants, that is, nationals of countries with relatively low numbers of immigrants since 1965, could gain entry.

Of the first 700,000 annual allotment, 465,000 visas were made available to family-sponsored immigrants, 140,000 for employment-based immigrants, and 55,000 for diversity immigrants.

Beginning October 1, 1991, all family-sponsored immigration was limited to approximately 480,000 annually for two years, after which the yearly limit dropped to 465,000. The relatively large percentage of the overall limit allocated to family-related immigration reflected the continued commitment to family unity as a primary goal of immigration policy.

There is still no limit on immigration by immediate relatives.

The 1990 Act did guarantee admission of at least 226,000 other relatives of U.S. citizens and permanent residents, an increase of approximately 65,000 over the former quota, set just 4 years previously in 1986.

THE ACTS OF 1996 (AEDPA and IIRIRA)

Three new immigration acts were signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996.

The first of these acts was the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), which became law on April 24, 1996.

The second was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (Welfare Reform Act), which became law on August 22, 1996. The changes made by the Welform Reform Act were part of a comprehensive reform of the American Welfare System and were not reforms solely made to target immigrants or illegal immigrants.

The third was the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), which became law on September 30, 1996. The AEDPA and IIRIRA increased the number of criminal acts for which a non-citizen could be removed and eliminated nearly all forms of relief for non-citizens with criminal convictions.

IIRIRA also stiffened the requirement for affidavits of support for immigrants entering on the basis of their relationship to U.S. citizens or permanent residents. A sponsor must agree in the affidavit to provide support for the immigrant at an annual income that is not less than 125% of the federal poverty standard. Also, the sponsor must reimburse the government if the non-citizen receives means-tested public benefits within ten years of admission, unless he or she has naturalized. IIRIRA also added a ground of removability for any non-citizen who becomes a “public charge” within five years of admission.

Like the affidavit of support requirement, the 1996 Welfare Act reflected Congress’ concern that immigrants were placing an increasing burden on the federal budget. The Welfare Act made most non-citizens, including permanent residents, ineligible for federal benefits such as food stamps and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Immigrants who entered the country after August 22, 1996, were ineligible for all means-tested public benefits for a period of five years. The Welfare Act also authorized the states to deny benefits to certain classes of non-citizens.

In 1998 Congress amended the law and reinstated federal benefits for most permanent residents who were receiving them before passage of the Act.

SECTION 434 & SECTION 642 of the 1996 ACT

The 1996 law states the following: 

Pursuant to § 434 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA, P.L. 104-193) and § 642 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA, P.L. 104-208) states and localities may not limit their governmental entities or officers from maintaining records regarding a person’s immigration status, or bar the exchange of such information with any federal, state, or local entity.

This language was placed in the “Comprehensive Immigration Reform” of 1996 in response to the creation of ”Sanctuary Cities” and the adoption of “Sanctuary City Statutes” by many U.S. cities.

As the previous parargarphs clearly establish, Immigration Laws and Quotas are the responisbility of the Federal Government, any attempt by State or City Governments to usurp this power from the Federal Government is unconstitutional. A States attempt to enforce a Federal Immigration Law is not unconstitutional. Simply put, while States and Cities don’t create Immigration Law, they are expected to enforce them.

http://www.ilw.com/immigrationdaily/news/2009,1026-crs.pdf

 WHAT IS A SANCTUARY CITY?

The term “Sanctuary City” refers to a city or state that enacts policies which are in violation of Federal Immigration law and direct State or City Employees to disregard exisitng Immigration Law. Specifically, sanctuary cities often mandate local laws which prevent inquiry into a person’s immigration status.

How can Governement Employees administer the Federal, State and Local criminal laws and civil laws governing the allocation and distribution of Federal, State and Local Welfare benefits, without making this type of inquiry? 

Sanctuary policies are a violation of federal law, such as the section 642(a) of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which prohibits the embedding of illegal immigrants, and the March 2005 United States Supreme Court case, Muehler v Mena, which stated that law enforcement has the right to ask about immigration status.

While the laws differ from Commmunity to Community, an example of a “Sanctuary City” ordinance, taken from the city of Tacoma Park, Maryland, follows: 

“Introduced by: Councilmember Seamens First Reading: October 22, 2007:   Second Reading: October 29, 2007

CITY OF TAKOMA PARK, MARYLAND, ORDINANCE NO. 2007-58,

AN ORDINANCE REAFFIRMING AND STRENGTHENING THE CITY OF TAKOMA PARK’S IMMIGRATION SANCTUARY LAW

WHEREAS, in 1985, as an expression of these values, the Takoma Park City Council passed the City of Refuge Ordinance, which prohibits City employees, including police officers, from cooperating with federal immigration authorities in the enforcement of civil and criminal immigration laws and prohibits City employees from requesting or disclosing information regarding the immigration status of individuals.

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF TAKOMA PARK, MARYLAND:

SECTION 1. Title 9, Civil Liberties and Human Relations, Chapter 4, Rights of Non-U.S. Citizens in Takoma Park, of the Takoma Park Code (2004 edition) is amended as follows:                                                                   9.04.010 No City enforcement of immigration laws.                            A. No agent, officer or employee of the City, in the performance of official duties, shall assist the United States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement in the investigation or arrest of any persons for civil or criminal violation of the immigration and nationality laws of the United States.

9.04.020 No inquiries into citizenship. No agent, officer or employee of the City, in the performance of official duties, shall ask any person about his or her citizenship or immigration status or inquire about any person’s citizenship or immigration status with any third person. No agent, officer or employee of the City, in the performance of official duties, shall release any information regarding the citizenship or residency status of any City resident.immigration status of any individual to any third party.”

http://www.takomaparkmd.gov/clerk/agenda/items/2007/102907-2.pdf

The intent of the Tacoma Park, Maryland statute is obvious, a liberal attempt to usurp the Federal Governements authoirty to regulate immigration into the United States and to disrupt the co-operation between Federal, State and City Law Enforcement officials while they attempt to enforce the laws of this Country. How does one enforce Federal or State welfare laws that prohibit dispersing benefits to illegal aliens while reserving the benefits for citizens and “legal immigrants” if one cannot make a legal determination of who is in the Country legally and who is here illegally? 

The devastating effect this short sighted, unconstitutional activity could have on the safety of America became all to clear on September 11, 2001.

 THE COMPREHENSIVE IMMIGRATION REFORM 09/11/2001

The September 11, 2001, attacks resulted in significant changes in immigration law and policy. Congress passed several acts intended to improve national security, including the USA Patriot Act (115 Stat. 272), the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act (116 Stat. 543), and the Homeland Security Act (116 Stat. 2135). One of the most dramatic consequences of these measures was the elimination of the INS and the transfer of immigration functions to the Department of Homeland Security in 2003. Other provisions of these acts broadened the class of people who can be excluded or removed for terrorist activity, mandated increased screening of applicants for admission, and called for new data systems to track non-citizens in the U.S.

Department of Homeland Security

In November 2002, Congress passed the Homeland Security Act (116 Stat. 2135), which abolished the Immigration and Naturalization Service and transferred most immigration functions to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). As suggested by the Commission on Immigration Reform some years earlier (see § 1-7.6, supra), the INS’ service and enforcement functions were separated in this reorganization. These functions have been divided among three bureaus within the DHS: the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), which adjudicates immigrant and nonimmigrant petitions, naturalization petitions, asylum applications, and other matters; the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which includes the Border Patrol and immigration inspections at ports of entry; and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which enforces immigration laws in the interior of the U.S..

Restrictions on Immigration

The USA Patriot Act (115 Stat. 272) broadened the definition of terrorist as used in the grounds for inadmissibility and removal. Under this Act, anyone who endorses or provides financial support to a terrorist organization, or who actually participates in terrorist activities, is inadmissible or removable.

To identify possible terrorists, U.S. consulates are required to check visa applicants’ names against “lookout lists” prior to issuing a visa.

Monitoring of Non-Citizens in the U.S.

After September 11, the INS was criticized for its inability to track non-citizens in the U.S. or to identify persons who might pose a threat to national security. In 2002, the INS promulgated regulations requiring nonimmigrants from twenty-five countries to register at INS district offices and report periodically as to their whereabouts and activities in the U.S. See § 8-2.2(c), infra. That same year, the INS and the State Department implemented a new database system, called “SEVIS” to track foreign students. Immigration authorities also began to enforce change of address reporting requirements that had been part of the INA since 1952 but were rarely publicized or enforced.

ATTEMPTED IMMIGRATION REFORM OF 2007

U.S. House Passes Drake Amendment to Eradicate Sanctuary Cities. Amendment withholds federal funding for localities that violate Section 642(a) of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act

July 25, 2007

Washington D.C. — The U.S. House of Representatives today passed an amendment by Representative Thelma Drake (R-Va.) to H.R. 2638, the Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2008.  Passing by a voice vote, Rep. Drake’s amendment aims to eliminate what are commonly referred to as “sanctuary policies” in local municipalities, whereby law enforcement officials are barred from asking suspects about their immigration status or reporting them to Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE).  The amendment will ensure that existing law is enforced uniformly across the country by withholding federal funding for cities that choose to violate section 642(a) of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA).

“Although predominately a federal issue, we have all witnessed how the epidemic of illegal immigration can impact members of a local community,” said Rep. Drake.  “Solving this problem is going to require the commitment from all levels of government to engage in an active partnership.

“Sanctuary cities undermine these partnerships by willfully and selectively choosing to disregard federal laws that are already on the books.  Most Americans agree that if you want to get serious about addressing our nation’s failed immigration system, enforcing existing laws is a good place to start.

“This amendment says that when Congress took steps to eradicate sanctuary policies back in the Nineties, we meant it.  I am committed to ensuring that this language remains in the legislation and is signed into law by the President.”

Under section 642(a) of IIRIRA, a “Federal, State, or local government entity or official may not prohibit, or in any way restrict, any government entity or official from sending to, or receiving from, the Immigration and Naturalization Service information regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual.”

http://www.house.gov/apps/list/press/ca50_bilbray/morenews/drakeamend.shtml

The Democratically controlled U.S. Senate blocked a vote on the Drake Amendment in 2007 & 2008.

THE ARIZONA LAW 2009

See: https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/the-immigration-debate-arizonas-law-facts-from-fiction-are-you-tired-of-being-lied-to/

The State of Arizona passed Arizona House Bill 2162 and it was signed into law on April 26, 2010. http://www.azleg.gov/legtext/49leg/2r/bills/hb2162c.htm

On the day the law wasssigned into effect Arizona has at least 4 ”Sanctuary Cities” violating the Federal Law; Phoenix, Tuscon, Chandler and Mesa. 

Section 3 of the Arizona is titled; “Cooperation and assistance in enforcement of immigration laws.”

Section 3 of the Arizona Law mandates that all State, Local and City Employees enforce both Federal and State laws regarding criminal acts committed by illegal aliens. The law mandates that the laws be enforced “concurrently” by all Federal, State and Local law enforcement officials.

Section 3 does not permit law enforcement officials to stop and ask anyone for their ID. No one!

Section 3 does require that once law enforcement officials have “stoppped, detained or arrested” an individual and are “conducting a criminal investigation”, the suspect will be asked for identification.

All indivuals who find themselves the subject of an investigation will be asked for their ID.

PRESUMPTION OF LAWFUL CITIZENSHIP UNDER THE ARIZONA LAW

Any individual who can produce one of the following pieces of identification is presumed to be a “lawful citizen of the United States”:  1).  A valid Arizona driver license. 2).  A valid Arizona nonoperating identification license. 3).  A valid tribal enrollment card or other form of tribal identification.  4).  If the entity requires proof of legal presence in the United States before issuance, any valid United States federal, state or local government issued identification.

Section 3 also provides, “A law enforcement official or agency may not consider race, color or national origin in implementing the requirements of this subsection except to the extent permitted by the United States or Arizona Constitution”.

FEDERAL DETERMINATION OF CITIZENSHIP STATUS UNDER THE ARIZONA LAW

If some one is “stopped, detained or arrested” and cannot produce identification, the law enforcement officals are instructed to continue their investigation, however, the determination of whether any individual is an “illegal alien” is determined according to Federal Law: “In the implementation of this section, an alien’s immigration status may be determined by: 1.  A law enforcement officer who is authorized by the federal government to verify or ascertain an alien’s immigration status, or 2.  The United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement or the United States Customs and Border Protection Act pursuant to 8 United States Code section 1373(c).”

THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG – SCAAP PAYMENTS – THE HIDDEN COST OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION: 

SCAAP is a payment program administered by OJP, through its component the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), in conjunction with the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) bureau within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).2 SCAAP was authorized by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 to provide federal assistance to states and localities for the costs of incarcerating certain criminal aliens who are in custody based on state or local charges or convictions.3 In fiscal year (FY) 2005, BJA distributed $287.1 million in SCAAP payments to 752 state, county, and local jurisdictions.4

The following table displays the 10 jurisdictions that received the largest SCAAP payments from the FY 2005 appropriation. Collectively, they accounted for nearly 69 percent of the SCAAP payments made from that appropriation.

TOP TEN SCAAP RECIPIENTS – FY 2005
State Jurisdiction Amount
California State of California5 $ 85,953,191
New York State of New York 24,022,356
Texas State of Texas 18,582,484
New York City of New York 15,893,255
Florida State of Florida 12,806,110
California Los Angeles County6 12,530,034
Arizona State of Arizona 12,139,791
California Orange County 6,562,437
Illinois State of Illinois 4,731,269
Massachusetts State of Massachusetts 4,728,549
TOTAL $197,949,476
       

 

*********************************************************************

The program only reimburses states and localities that incur correctional officer salary costs for incarcerating undocumented criminal aliens who: (1) have at least one felony or two misdemeanor convictions for violations of state or local law, and (2) are incarcerated for at least four consecutive days during the established reporting period.7 Applicants for funding are required to provide correctional officer salary costs, the total of all inmate days, and details about eligible inmates housed in their correctional facilities during that period.

In April 2005, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report stating that 80 percent of the SCAAP aliens were incarcerated in the five states of Arizona, California, Florida, New York, and Texas in FY 2003.

The total costs for Federal, State and Local detection, apprehension, arrest and incarceration  are in the 100,’s of billions of dollars.

REPEAT OFFENDERS IN THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT COMMUNITY

The Department of Homeland Security reported the following to Congress.

Congression asked the Department of Homeland Security to determine how many criminal offenses were committed by criminal aliens who were released from state or local custody without a referral to DHS for removal from the United States.

To address this question, the DHS performed limited testing to determine the number of subsequent arrests of criminal aliens who were released from state or local custody. We based our testing on information from the vetted FY 2004 SCAAP database, which was the last year when ICE reported to BJA on the status of every person identified in support of applications for SCAAP funding. There were 262,105 records in that database. We requested assistance from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to have those records compared to arrest data in the FBI’s National Crime Information Center (NCIC).

After querying NCIC, the FBI provided us with nearly 433,000 text files that could not be searched by automated means. The volume of files was too great to search manually and quantify the results. Consequently, we judgmentally selected a sample of 100 criminal histories, which we reviewed for evidence of arrests of criminal aliens subsequent to June 30, 2003. The criminal histories for 73 of the 100 individuals documented at least one arrest after that date. Those 73 individuals accounted for a total of 429 arrests, with 878 charges and 241 convictions. These figures represent an average of nearly six arrests per individual.

The charges for the 73 individuals ranged from traffic violations and trespassing to more serious crimes, such as burglary or assault. Some of those charges included:

• 166 drug-related;

• 37 immigration-related;

• 213 burglary, robbery, or theft;

• 40 assault;

• 10 property damage;

 • 3 terrorist threat;

and 13 weapons charges.

Based on this limited sample, the DHS could not statistically extrapolate the number of offenses committed by undocumented criminal aliens who were released from local custody without a referral to ICE. Based on the information available to us in the criminal histories, we could not determine the number of the criminal aliens in our sample that were deported, if any, and later arrested after reentering the United States. We also could not determine if ICE was notified before the criminal aliens in our sample were released from custody. But if this data is indicative of the full population of 262,105 criminal histories, the rate at which released criminal aliens are rearrested is extremely high. http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/OJP/a0707/final.pdf

IMMIGRATION 2010

Today, in 2010, as in every year since the mid 1980′s, the US has allowed at least 1 million (1,000,000) new immigrants to enter this Country. More than 1 million each and every year. Yes, despite our economic down turn, over 1,000,000 immigrants entered this Country as LPRs (Legal Permanent Residents) in 2009. http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/lpr_fr_2009.pdf            Yes, the exact number, according to the Obama Administration, was            1,130, 818 ( 1 million, 130 thousand, 8 hundred and 18) for the year ending December 2009.

An additional 1,000,000 immigrants ( 1 million) were granted the rights of “Naturalized Citizens” in 2009. http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/natz_fr_2009.pdf

In addition to these numbers, believe it or not, it is estimated that 160 million (160,000,000) non-immigrant admissions occur on an annual basis. Non-immigrant admission include, ”tourists and business travelers from Canada, Mexican nationals with Border Crossing Cards, ….”.  http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ni_fr_2009.pdf

The United States allows more “legal” immgration every year than all the other Countries in the world  combined.

Obama Administration Threatens To Abandon Law Enforcement In Arizona: What is ICE? What Is ICE intended to do?

Top Official Says Feds May Not Process Illegals Referred From Arizona

 FOXNews.com {McAuleysworld comments in blue}

A top Department of Homeland Security official reportedly said his agency will not necessarily process illegal immigrants referred to them by Arizona authorities.

A top Department of Homeland Security official reportedly said his agency will not necessarily process illegal immigrants referred to them by Arizona authorities.

John Morton, assistant secretary of homeland security for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, made the comment during a meeting on Wednesday with the editorial board of the Chicago Tribune, the newspaper reports.

“I don’t think the Arizona law, or laws like it, are the solution,” Morton told the newspaper. {Morton is not empowered to question State or Federal Law, he is, as an employee of the Federal Government, sworn to uphold the laws of the United States. Any legal challange to the Arizona law, a challenge which would fail, must be pursued through our Court system. Mr. Morton should be instructed to carry out the necessary and essential functions of his office or resign. Should he fail to resign, he should be removed from office}

Sen. Jeff Sessions, R-AL, said it appeared the Obama administration is “nullifying existing law” and suggested Morton may not be the right person for his post if he fails to enforce federal immigration law.

“If he feels he cannot enforce the law, he shouldn’t have the job,” Sessions told Fox News. “That makes him, in my view, not fulfilling the responsibilities of his office.”

Sessions said the U.S. government has “systematically failed” to enforce federal immigration law and claimed Morton’s statement is an indication that federal officials do not plan on working with Arizona authorities regarding its controversial law.

“They’re telegraphing to every ICE agency in America that they really don’t intend on cooperating with Arizona,” Sessions said. “The federal government should step up and do it. It’s their responsibility.”

Sen. Jeff Sessions, R-AL, said it appeared the Obama administration is “nullifying existing law” and suggested Morton may not be the right person for his post if he fails to enforce federal immigration law.

“If he feels he cannot enforce the law, he shouldn’t have the job,” Sessions told Fox News. “That makes him, in my view, not fulfilling the responsibilities of his office.”

http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/05/21/official-says-feds-process-illegals-referred-arizona/ 

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)

ICE is a federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS). 

The mission of ICE is to protect the United States and uphold public safety by enforcing immigration and customs laws.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement was formed pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 following the events of September 11, 2001. With the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security the functions and jurisdictions of several border and revenue enforcement agencies were combined and consolidated into U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. 

The agencies that were either moved entirely or merged in part into ICE included the investigative and intelligence resources of the United States Customs Service, the criminal investigation resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the United States Federal Protective Service.

Consequently, ICE is the largest investigative arm of the Department of Homeland Security, and the second largest contributor to the nation’s Joint Terrorism Task Force (after the Federal Bureau of Investigation).

ICE has an estimated 17,200 employees and a 2008 budget of  $5.5 billion dollars.

ICE Office of Detention and Removal

DRO is responsible for enforcing the nation’s immigration laws and ensuring the departure of all removable aliens from the United States. DRO uses its Immigration Enforcement Agents (IEA) to interdict, apprehend, and remove criminal aliens found in the nation’s jails and prisons. As such, IEAs are the uniformed presence of immigration enforcement within the interior of the United States. IEAs also are responsible for the transportation and detention of aliens in ICE custody. DRO uses its Deportation Officers to prosecute aliens for illegal re-entry after deportation, monitor cases during deportation proceedings, supervise released aliens who are subject to deportation, and to remove aliens from the United States. Deportation Officers and IEAs also operate strategically placed Fugitive Operations Teams whose function is to locate, apprehend, and remove aliens who absconded from immigration proceedings and remain in the United States with an outstanding Warrant of Deportation.

Operation Community Shield

In February 2005, ICE began Operation Community Shield, a national law enforcement initiative that targets violent transnational street gangs through the use of ICE’s broad law enforcement powers, including the unique and powerful authority to remove (deport) criminal aliens, including illegal aliens and legal permanent resident aliens. Under Operation Community Shield:

  • Partners with federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, in the United States and abroad, to develop a comprehensive and integrated approach in conducting criminal investigations and other law enforcement operations against violent street gangs and others who pose a threat to public safety.
  • Identifies violent street gangs and develops intelligence on their membership, associates, criminal activities and international movements.
  • Deters, disrupts and dismantles gang operations by tracing and seizing cash, weapons and other assets derived from criminal activities.
  • Seeks prosecution and/or removal of alien gang members from the United States .
  • Works closely with our attaché offices throughout Latin America and foreign law enforcement counterparts in gathering intelligence, sharing information and conducting coordinated enforcement operations.

Operation Predator

ICE developed Operation Predator in 2003, an initiative to identify, investigate and arrest child predators and sexual offenders. Operation Predator draws on ICE’s unique investigative and enforcement authorities to safeguard children. Coordinated nationally and internationally, Operation Predator brings together an array of ICE disciplines and resources to target these child sex abusers. As part of the effort:

  • ICE has created a National Child Victim Identification System in partnership with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), the FBI, U.S. Postal Inspection Service, U.S. Secret Service, the Department of Justice, the Internet Crimes Against Children Task Forces and other agencies.
  • ICE agents stationed internationally work with foreign governments, Interpol and others to enhance coordination and cooperation on crimes that cross borders.
  • ICE is a member of the Virtual Global Taskforce, joining law enforcement agencies around the world to fight child exploitation information and images that travel over the Internet.

Cyber Crimes

The Cyber Crimes Center (C3) Child Exploitation Section (CES) investigates the trans-border dimension of large-scale producers and distributors of images of child abuse, as well as individuals who travel in foreign commerce for the purpose of engaging in sex with minors. The CES employs the latest technology to collect evidence and track the activities of individuals and organized groups who sexually exploit children through the use of websites, chat rooms, newsgroups, and peer-to-peer trading. These investigative activities are organized under Operation Predator, a program managed by the CES.

Child Exploitation

The C3 CES investigates large-scale producers and distributors of images of child abuse as well as individuals who travel in foreign commerce for the purpose of engaging in sex with minors.

  • Operation Falcon — A joint international images of child abuse investigation initiated by ICE that identified 39 websites distributing child pornography. Further investigation led to the arrest of 1,200 international downloader’s and more than 300 U.S. customers. Nine individuals from the United States and Belarus were identified and charged as the principals in this investigation. All principals were convicted on various charges related to money laundering, structuring and the production and distribution of images of child abuse.
  • Operation Mango — An extensive investigation that closed down an American-owned beachside resort in Acapulco, Mexico, which offered children to sexual predators. The resort was a haven for pedophiles that traveled to the facility for the sole purpose of engaging in sex with minors. The proprietor of the business was convicted. As a result of this investigation and others, the government of Mexico recently created a Federal task force to address crimes against children in its country.
  • High Profile Deportations

    • October 14, 2006, ICE removed Sayed Malike to Afghanistan. Malike came to the attention of ICE via the FBI because he attempted to purchase C4 explosives, night vision goggles, bullet proof vests, and drugs from an undercover FBI agent.October 16, 2006, ICE successfully removed Jasvir Singh to India. An immigration judge ordered Singh’s removal on May 15, 2006 after ICE presented evidence that Singh attempted to purchase large quantities of weapons, including surface to air missiles, from undercover FBI agents.

    ICE and Immigration Law

    Immigration and Nationality Act Section 287(g) is designed to effectively multiply ICE forces through enhanced cooperation and communication with state, and local law enforcement agencies. Section 287(g) authorizes the Secretary of Homeland Security to enter into agreements with state and local law enforcement agencies, permitting designated officers to perform immigration law enforcement functions, pursuant to a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), provided that the local law enforcement officers receive appropriate training and function under the supervision of sworn U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers. Under 287(g), ICE provides state and local law enforcement with the training and subsequent authorization to identify, process, and when appropriate, detain immigration offenders they encounter during their regular, daily law-enforcement activity.

    “The days of ignoring immigration law are over,” Marc Raimondi, A U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement spokesman, said. (Raimondi is no longer with ICE, a victim of the Obama Administration “restaffing” and the “new mission’ for ICE under the Obama Adminstration). “A failure to comply is not an option. The person ordered to be removed needs to comply with that order or we’ll assist them with compliance. To think of people illegally in the country who have been convicted of crimes are walking around is outrageous.”

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement

    JUST WHAT THE HECK IS WRONG WITH OBAMA AND HIS APPOINTEE MORTON?

    Obama and Morton believe law enforcement officials in Arizona should be denied the right to ask individuals apprehended under Operation Mango, Operation Falcon, Operation Predator, Operation Community Shield or The Cyber Crimes Unit for identification? Exactly how do you expect the law enforcement officers to investigate ID theft without asking for an obtaining an ID from the suspect? Please, don’t bother to ask a murderous MS13 gang member to produce ID? Are they insane or are they ridged, left wing, ideologs?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement

    CONTACT YOUR CONGRESSPERSON AND DEMAND THE RESIGNATION OF DHS SECRETARY JANET NAPOLITANO, ATTORNEY GENRAL ERIC HOLDER AND ASSISTANT DHS/ICE SECRETARY JOHN MORTON.   

    http://www.usa.gov/Contact/Elected.shtml

    THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG – SCAAP PAYMENTS – ONE OF THE HIDDEN COST OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION: 

    SCAAP is a payment program administered by OJP, through its component the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), in conjunction with the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) bureau within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).2 SCAAP was authorized by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 to provide federal assistance to states and localities for the costs of incarcerating certain criminal aliens who are in custody based on state or local charges or convictions.3 In fiscal year (FY) 2005, BJA distributed $287.1 million in SCAAP payments to 752 state, county, and local jurisdictions.

    The following table displays the 10 jurisdictions that received the largest SCAAP payments from the FY 2005 appropriation. Collectively, they accounted for nearly 69 percent of the SCAAP payments made from that appropriation.

    TOP TEN SCAAP RECIPIENTS – FY 2005
    State Jurisdiction Amount
    California State of California5 $ 85,953,191
    New York State of New York 24,022,356
    Texas State of Texas 18,582,484
    New York City of New York 15,893,255
    Florida State of Florida 12,806,110
    California Los Angeles County6 12,530,034
    Arizona State of Arizona 12,139,791
    California Orange County 6,562,437
    Illinois State of Illinois 4,731,269
    Massachusetts State of Massachusetts 4,728,549
    TOTAL $197,949,476
         

     

    ************************************************************************

    The program only reimburses states and localities that incur correctional officer salary costs for incarcerating undocumented criminal aliens who: (1) have at least one felony or two misdemeanor convictions for violations of state or local law, and (2) are incarcerated for at least four consecutive days during the established reporting period. Applicants for funding are required to provide correctional officer salary costs, the total of all inmate days, and details about eligible inmates housed in their correctional facilities during that period.

    In April 2005, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report stating that 80 percent of the SCAAP aliens were incarcerated in the five states of Arizona, California, Florida, New York, and Texas in FY 2003.

    The total costs for Federal, State and Local detection, apprehension, arrest and incarceration  are in the 100,’s of billions of dollars.

    REPEAT OFFENDERS IN THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT COMMUNITY

    The Department of Homeland Security reported the following to Congress.

    Congression asked the Department of Homeland Security to determine how many criminal offenses were committed by criminal aliens who were released from state or local custody without a referral to DHS for removal from the United States.

    To address this question, the DHS performed limited testing to determine the number of subsequent arrests of criminal aliens who were released from state or local custody. We based our testing on information from the vetted FY 2004 SCAAP database, which was the last year when ICE reported to BJA on the status of every person identified in support of applications for SCAAP funding. There were 262,105 records in that database. We requested assistance from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to have those records compared to arrest data in the FBI’s National Crime Information Center (NCIC).

    After querying NCIC, the FBI provided us with nearly 433,000 text files that could not be searched by automated means. The volume of files was too great to search manually and quantify the results. Consequently, we judgmentally selected a sample of 100 criminal histories, which we reviewed for evidence of arrests of criminal aliens subsequent to June 30, 2003. The criminal histories for 73 of the 100 individuals documented at least one arrest after that date. Those 73 individuals accounted for a total of 429 arrests, with 878 charges and 241 convictions. These figures represent an average of nearly six arrests per individual.

    The charges for the 73 individuals ranged from traffic violations and trespassing to more serious crimes, such as burglary or assault. Some of those charges included:

    • 166 drug-related;

    • 37 immigration-related;

    • 213 burglary, robbery, or theft;

    • 40 assault;

    • 10 property damage;

     • 3 terrorist threat;

    and 13 weapons charges.

    Based on this limited sample, the DHS could not statistically extrapolate the number of offenses committed by undocumented criminal aliens who were released from local custody without a referral to ICE. Based on the information available to us in the criminal histories, we could not determine the number of the criminal aliens in our sample that were deported, if any, and later arrested after reentering the United States. We also could not determine if ICE was notified before the criminal aliens in our sample were released from custody. But if this data is indicative of the full population of 262,105 criminal histories, the rate at which released criminal aliens are rearrested is extremely high. http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/OJP/a0707/final.pdf

    Today, in 2010, as in every year since the mid 1980′s, the US has allowed at least 1 million (1,000,000) new immigrants to enter this Country. More than 1 million each and every year. Yes, despite our economic down turn, over 1,000,000 immigrants entered this Country as LPRs (Legal Permanent Residents) in 2009. http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/lpr_fr_2009.pdf           

    Yes, the exact number, according to the Obama Administration, was 1,130, 818 for the year ending December 2009.

    An additional 1,000,000 immigrants were granted the rights of “Naturalized Citizens” in 2009.

    http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/natz_fr_2009.pdf

    In addition to these numbers, believe it or not, it is estimated that 160 million (160,000,000)  non-immigrant admissions occur on an annual basis. Non-immigrant admission include, ”tourists and business travelers from Canada, Mexican nationals with Border Crossing Cards, ….”.  http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ni_fr_2009.pdf

    The United States allows more “legal” immgration every year than all the other Countries in the world  combined.

    SUMMARY

    The list below summarizes the “Comprehensive Immigration Reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. After every ”Reform” the Federal Government admits increasing numbers of aliens while it fails to secure our borders.

    Year     Immigrants Granted Entry

    1921     357,000 

    1924     164,667   

    1932     35,000  

    1948    400,000 

    1952    150,000 

    1965    290,000 

    1976    290,000

    1978    290,000 

    1980   290,000 +  120,000 Cuban refuges                                                                                                                                             1986    290,000 + amnesty for 1.4 million. 

    1990    800,000 

    1996    1,100,000 

    2001    1,100,000

    U.S immigration quota limits do not include “direct family members” of “naturalized citizens”. A “naturalized citizen” can bring “direct relatives”, defined as the ”naturalized citizen’s” mother, father, spouse, brothers, sisters and children, into the coutry as immigrants without having the “direct relative” qualified under the existing immigration quotas. 

    Since 1965 we have implemented 8 ” comprehensive immigration reforms”. Since 1986 we have increased the annual immigration quota from 290,000 to 1,100,000. In the 1980′s we offered “amnesty” to 5.6 million “illegal immigrants” and only 1.4 million accepted the offer. 

    We have not managed to secure our borders even once.

    https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/20/the-immigration-debate-the-arizona-law-its-place-in-the-history-of-american-immigration-laws-the-facts-not-political-spin/

    La Gran Estafa del Calentamiento Global – El video producido por WAGTV para la BBC

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    Posted on May 20, 2010 by mcauleysworld Publicado el 20 de mayo 2010 por mcauleysworld

    The Great Global Warming Swindle – The Video Produced By WAGTV For The BBC

    El mito del calentamiento global – Debunking calentamientos globales 5 Mandamientos

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    Posted on March 29, 2009 by mcauleysworld Publicado el 29 de marzo de 2009, por mcauleysworld

    The Five Things You Need To Know About The Global Warming Myth Las cinco cosas que usted necesita saber sobre el Calentamiento Global mito

    1).  Carbon Dioxide, CO2, is not a pollutant . 1). Dióxido de carbono, CO2, no es un contaminante. Carbon Dioxide is a naturally occurring element in our atmosphere. Bióxido de carbono es un elemento natural en nuestra atmósfera. Carbon Dioxide is no more a pollutant than say, oxygen or nitrogen. Dióxido de carbono no es más un contaminante que, por ejemplo, oxígeno o nitrógeno. Without CO2 there would be no life on earth. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Carbon_cycle . Sin el CO2 no habría vida en la tierra. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Carbon_cycle . Carbon Dioxide is the food which keeps plants alive. Dióxido de carbono es el alimento que mantiene las plantas vivas. Through photosynthesis plants transform CO2 into plant food. Oxygen is produced as a waste product. A través de la fotosíntesis las plantas transforman el CO2 en alimentos de origen vegetal. El oxígeno es producido como un producto de desecho. All living things are dependent on this ”Cycle”. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle2.php Todos los seres vivos dependen de este “Ciclo”. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle2.php

    Carbon Dioxide is called a “green house gas” because it allows visable light to pass through while it absorbs infrared and near infrared rays. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide Dióxido de carbono se llama un gas de efecto invernadero “porque permite que la luz visible al pasar a través mientras que absorbe los rayos infrarrojo cercano e infrarrojo. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

    The human body produces CO2 naturally. El cuerpo humano produce CO2 de forma natural. The Human Respiration System is the system that controls the exchange of oxygen for CO2 in the Human Body. La respiración humana es el sistema que controla el intercambio de oxígeno para el CO2 en el cuerpo humano. Everytime you breath out you are exhaling CO2. Cada vez que respiro de que está exhalando CO2.

    Carbon Dioxide is not a pollutant. Carbon Dioxide is a natural atmospheric element. All life on earth is dependent on CO2. Dióxido de carbono no es un contaminante. Bióxido de carbono es un elemento atmosférico natural. Toda la vida en la tierra depende de CO2. Without CO2 there would be no life on earth. Sin el CO2 no habría vida en la tierra. Compared to past history, the Earth’s atmosphere is currently CO2 “impoverished”.On average, there is less CO2 in the atmosphere today than there has been since life formed on earth. En comparación con la historia pasada, la atmósfera de la Tierra es actualmente de CO2 “pobres”. En promedio, hay menos de CO2 en la atmósfera hoy que ha habido desde formó la vida en la tierra.

    2). 2). Even at present levels, Carbon Dioxide is a trace gas. Incluso en los niveles actuales, dióxido de carbono es un gas traza. Current CO2 levels are only a small fraction of the Earths atmosphere, CO2 represents less than 1/2 of one percent of the atmosphere today. Los niveles actuales de CO2 son sólo una pequeña fracción de la atmósfera Tierras, el CO2 representa menos de 1 / 2 de uno por ciento de la atmósfera en la actualidad.

    The CO2 content in the atmosphere is measured in terms of CO2 parts per million (ppm) by volume. At present the globally averaged concentration of CO2 is stated as 387 PPM. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide For every million parts (1,000,000,000 parts) in the atmosphere 387 of those parts are CO2. El contenido de CO2 en la atmósfera se mide en términos de cuotas de CO2 por millón (ppm) en volumen. En la actualidad el promedio global de concentración de CO2 se plantea como 387 PPM. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide Por cada millón de partes (1.000.000.000 partes) en la atmósfera 387 de estas partes se CO2. CO2 levels have increased over the past 50 years from 320 PPM to today’s 387 PPM, an increase of 67 PPM. los niveles de CO2 han aumentado en los últimos 50 años a partir de 320 ppm a 387 ppm en la actualidad, un aumento de 67 PPM.

    The CO2 level today, 387 PPM, can be compared to with a level of  8000 PPM (20X todays levels) 500 million years ago or CO2 levels of 2000 – 3000 PPM (5 to 6 times todays levels) during the Jurasic Period, when the Great Dinosaurs roamed the earth. http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange2/07_1.shtml El nivel actual de CO2, 387 PPM, se puede comparar con un nivel de 8000 PPM (20X niveles de hoy) 500 millones de años o niveles de CO2 de 2000 a 3000 PPM (5 a 6 veces superiores a los de hoy) durante el Período Jurásico, cuando la Grandes dinosaurios vagaban por la tierra. http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange2/07_1.shtml

    During the ice ages CO2 levels fell to between 200PPM and 280 PPM. During interglacial periods the CO2 Level has been measured at between 280 – 310 PPM. One does not need a calculator to see that current CO2 levels are much nearer to those recorded during the Ice Age and the interglacial periods than that time when Earth’s great green forests were first formed. Durante los niveles de las edades de hielo de CO2 se redujo a entre 200 ppm y 280 ppm. Durante los períodos interglaciares del CO2 se ha medido el nivel de entre 280 a 310 PPM. Uno no necesita una calculadora para ver que los niveles actuales de CO2 son mucho más cercanos a los registrados durante el La edad de hielo y los períodos interglaciares que el momento en que grandes bosques verdes de la Tierra se formaron primero. CO2 is essential for plant life and growth. El CO2 es esencial para la vida vegetal y el crecimiento.

    In a longer historical context – Earth’s current CO2 Levels are quite low. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/2005-08-18/dioxide.htm En un contexto histórico más largo – actuales de CO2 de los niveles de la Tierra son muy bajas. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/2005-08-18/dioxide.htm

    In fact, in Earth’s entire history there have only been two prior periods where CO2 levels were this low, . http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/2005-08-18/dioxide.htm ,   ”Today, at 370 PPM our atmosphere is CO2-impoverished” http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/Carboniferous climate.html . De hecho, en toda la historia de la Tierra sólo ha habido dos períodos anteriores, donde los niveles de CO2 eran tan bajos,. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/2005-08-18/dioxide.htm : “Hoy , a 370 PPM nuestra atmósfera es CO2 empobrecidos ” climate.html http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/Carboniferous . “So far the signal of a discernible human contribution to global climate change has not emerged from this natural variability or background noise .” “Hasta ahora la señal de un ser humano discernible contribución al cambio climático global no ha surgido de esta variabilidad natural o ruido de fondo.”

    “Without the warming caused by natural levels of CO 2 and water vapor in our atmosphere, the average surface temperature of our planet would be well below freezing.” http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=17726 “Sin el calentamiento causado por los niveles naturales de CO 2 y vapor de agua en nuestra atmósfera, la temperatura media de la superficie de nuestro planeta sería muy por debajo de cero.” http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id = 17726
     

    3). 3). Human’s produce a very small percentage of  the CO2 found in the Atmosphere: producen Humanos un pequeño porcentaje del CO2 en la atmósfera:

    Over 95% of the total CO 2 emissions into our atmosphere would occur even if humans were not present on Earth . Más del 95% del total de emisiones de CO 2 en nuestra atmósfera se produciría incluso si los seres humanos no estaban presentes en la Tierra. For example, the natural decay of organic material in forests and grasslands, such as dead trees and grasses, results in the release of about 220 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide every year. This carbon dioxide alone is over 8 times the amount emitted by humans. Por ejemplo, la descomposición natural del material orgánico en los bosques y praderas, como los árboles muertos y los pastos, los resultados en la liberación de cerca de 220 gigatoneladas de dióxido de carbono cada año. Este dióxido de carbono por sí sola es más de 8 veces la cantidad emitida por los seres humanos. There are many other sources of CO2 in the Earth’s atmopshere. Hay muchas otras fuentes de CO2 en la Tierra atmopshere.

    The Earth’s Oceans contain 50 times more CO2 than the atmosphere. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide , http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=17726 . Los océanos de la Tierra contienen 50 veces más CO2 que la atmósfera. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide , http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=17726 .

    If 5% of todays CO2 is produced by human activity (95% would occur if no humans existed on the planet) then a simple calculation will provide us with an absolute figure for Human CO2 production. Si el 5% de la actual de CO2 es producido por la actividad humana (95% se produciría si los seres humanos no existían en el planeta), entonces un simple cálculo nos dará una cifra absoluta para la producción de CO2 Humanos. 387 PPM CO2 x 5% = 19.35 PPM. 387 ppm de CO2 x 5% = 19,35 PPM.

    How does this compare to the Earth’s total atmosphere? ¿Cómo se compara a la atmósfera total de la Tierra?

    Well for every 1 Million (1,000,000) parts of atmosphere, there are Seven Hundred Eighty One Thousand (781,000) parts Nitrogen, Two Hundred Ten Thousand (210,000) parts Oxygen, Nine Thousand Parts (9,000) Argon and Three Hundred Eighty Seven Parts (387) CO2. Bien por cada 1 millón (1.000.000) partes de la atmósfera, hay Setecientos Ochenta Mil (781.000) las piezas de nitrógeno, doscientos diez mil (210.000) partes de oxígeno, nueve mil piezas (9.000) y argón Trescientos Ochenta y Siete piezas (387 ) de CO2. All other gases account for the remaining 500 plus parts. http://web.rollins.edu/~jsiry/VapgasAt.htm Todos los otros gases representan el restante 500 piezas más. http://web.rollins.edu/ jsiry ~ / VapgasAt.htm

    Total CO2 presence in the atmosphere represents less than 4/10 of 1 percent. presencia total de CO2 en la atmósfera representa menos del 4 / 10 de 1 por ciento. (CO2 is less than half of one percent of the atmosphere – If the atmosphere were a $100 dollar bill – all the CO2 in the atmosphere would equal 40 cents). http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/atmos_gases.html . (CO2 es menos de la mitad del uno por ciento de la atmósfera – Si la atmósfera fuera un billete de 100 dólares $ – todo el CO2 en la atmósfera sería igual a 40 centavos de dólar). http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/atmos_gases.html . Man made CO2 represents 1/20th of that amount or 2 cents out of every $100 Dollar Bill. El hombre hizo de CO2 representa 1/20o de dicho importe o 2 centavos por cada billete de $ 100 dólares.

    I asked a scientific friend to help me conceptualize this amount with an everyday example. Le pregunté a un amigo científico que me ayude a conceptualizar esta cantidad con un ejemplo cotidiano. Just how big is the total contribution of manmade CO2 to the Earth’s atmosphere? ¿Qué tan grande es la contribución total de CO2 provocadas por el hombre a la atmósfera de la Tierra? The friend couldn’t remember where he first heard this comparison, so I cannot provide a site, he didn’t want to take personal credit, but here goes; “Imagine a Farmers field 100 miles long and 100 miles wide. El amigo no podía recordar donde oyó por primera vez esta comparación, así que no puedo dar un sitio, no quería tomar crédito personal, pero aquí va: “Imagina un campo de agricultores 100 millas de largo y 100 millas. It is filled with corn. Está lleno de maíz. A mouse sitting in the middle of the field farts.” Ask yourself,”Will the fart affect the crop?” As much as manmade CO2 affects our global temperatures. En una sesión del ratón en el centro del campo pedos “. Pregúntese:” ¿El pedo afectar a la cosecha? “En la medida en forma de CO2 provocadas por el hombre afecta las temperaturas mundiales.

    4). 4). Temperature Impacts CO2 Level   –  CO2 levels do not drive Temperature Change Efectos de la temperatura de CO2 Nivel – los niveles de CO2 no conduzca cambio de temperatura

    First, CO2 levels rise and fall with the seasons or time of day. En primer lugar, los niveles de CO2 suben y bajan con las estaciones del año o la hora del día. CO2 levels rise in the Autumn and Winter as green plants go dormant or die. los niveles de CO2 lugar en el otoño y el invierno como las plantas verdes van inactivos o mueren. The plants cease to “process” CO2 as part of their food chain. Las plantas dejan de “proceso” de CO2 como parte de su cadena alimentaria. In the spring and summer CO2 levels fall as these same plants come back to life and consume CO2 in photosyntesis. En la primavera y el verano los niveles de CO2 caen ya que estas mismas plantas volver a la vida y consumo de CO2 en la fotosíntesis. Likewise CO2 levels fluctuate in the night and day. http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/animation.php?shortname=anm_co2_levels Del mismo modo los niveles de CO2 fluctuar en el día y la noche. http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/animation.php?shortname=anm_co2_levels

    Read: Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology, Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science, MIT http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/03/30/lindzen-on-negative-climate-feedback/ Lea: Alfred P. Sloan Profesor de Meteorología del Departamento de Tierra, Atmósfera y Ciencias Planetarias, MIT http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/03/30/lindzen-on-negative-climate-feedback/

    CO2 levels follow changes in temperature, not the other way around. http://icecap.us/images/uploads/CO2,Temperaturesandiceages-f.pdf . los niveles de CO2 tras los cambios en temperatura, y no al revés. http://icecap.us/images/uploads/CO2, Temperaturesandiceages-F.pdf .

    “ There is, overall, a good match between temperature and CO2 and temperature. “No hay, en general, una buena correlación entre la temperatura y el CO2 y la temperatura. One important piece of information that can be determined from ice core data is whether changes in temperature follow or proceed changes in CO2.” “Changes in temperature precede changes in CO2″ http://www.brighton73.freeserve.co.uk/gw/paleo/400000yrfig.htm Una pieza importante de información que se puede determinar a partir de datos de testigos de hielo es si los cambios de temperatura seguir o continuar los cambios en el CO2. “” Los cambios de temperatura preceden a los cambios en el CO2 ” http://www.brighton73.freeserve.co.uk/gw / paleo/400000yrfig.htm   

    http://www.sciencebits.com/IceCoreTruth , http://www.sciencebits.com/IceCoreTruth ,

    First, the total increase in Global Temperatures over the last 100 years is ……….  7/10s of one degree. En primer lugar, la increase total de la temperatura global en los últimos 100 años es … … …. 7/10s de un grado. That is right, total Global warming over the Century is less than 1 degree. Eso es correcto, el calentamiento total del planeta en el siglo es menos de 1 grado.  During that same century the Sun’s measurable intensity or heat has increased. Durante ese mismo siglo intensidad mensurables del Sol o el calor ha aumentado.

    “Actual climate history shows no such correlation (that CO2 caused an increase in temperature) and there is no compelling evidence that the recent rise in temperature was caused by CO2. http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS%20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html#Correlation “La historia del clima actual no muestra dicha correlación (CO2 que provocó un aumento de la temperatura) y no hay pruebas convincentes de que el reciente aumento de la temperatura fue causado por el CO2. http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS% # Correlación 20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html

    Numerous papers published in major peer-reviewed scientific journals shows the Sun is the primary driver of climate change. http://www.co2science.org/articles/V6/N26/EDIT.php , http://www.worldclimatereport.com/index.php/2007/03/16/the-coming-global-cooling/ , http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS%20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html#Sun_Activity , http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/ice_ages.html Numerosos trabajos publicados en las principales revistas revisadas por colegas científicos muestra el Sol es el motor principal del cambio climático. http://www.co2science.org/articles/V6/N26/EDIT.php , http://www.worldclimatereport.com / index.php/2007/03/16/the-coming-global-cooling / , http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS% 20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html # Sun_Activity , http://www. geocraft.com / WVFossils / ice_ages.html

    5). Current Global Warming trends are neither catastrophic nor are they unusual given the Earth’s very recent past. 5). Actuales tendencias de calentamiento global no son ni catastrófica ni son inusuales dado muy reciente pasado de la Tierra del.

    Global Warming Alarmists state that man made CO2 is responsible for what is becoming a catastrophic increase in Global temperatures. Los alarmistas del calentamiento global del estado de CO2 que el hombre es responsable de lo que se está convirtiendo en un incremento catastrófico de la temperatura global. (You know the 1 degree increase in the last century). (Tú sabes el aumento de 1 grado en el siglo pasado).

    Science has told us for decades (decades prior to the Global Warming Alarmist taking the stage) that earth’s last ice age (referred to as the “little ice age”) began sometime near the year 1400 and lasted until approximately 1860. La ciencia nos ha dicho durante décadas (décadas antes de la alarmistas del calentamiento global de subir al escenario) que la edad de hielo pasada terrestre (conocida como la edad de hielo “poco”) comenzó en algún momento cerca del año 1400 y duró hasta aproximadamente 1860.  This “little ice age” was responsible for disasters like the “Irish Potato Famine”. Esta “edad de hielo poco” fue el responsable de desastres como la hambruna “papa irlandesa”. The end of the “little ice age” was not preceeded by an increase in CO2 levels. El fin de la edad de hielo “pequeño” no fue precedida por un aumento en los niveles de CO2. Other natural causes were responsible for the “global warming” which followed the end of the “little ice age” and continues to this date. http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/ice_ages.html , http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS%20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html#Hockey Otras causas naturales fueron responsables de la calentamiento global “que siguieron al final de la pequeña edad de hielo” y continúa hasta la fecha. http://www.geocraft.com/WVFossils/ice_ages.html , http://www. friendsofscience.org / / documentos activos /% FOS 20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html # Hockey

    During the Middle Ages (1066 – 1485) a time that saw the Norman’s conquest of England, King Richard The Lion Hearted, The Crusades – all 7 of them, the Early Italian Renaissance – a period of time long before the  ”Industrial Revolution”, mankind contributed very little to Global CO2 levels. The Middle Ages experienced a period of global warming that exceeds the global warming of today. Durante la Edad Media (1066 – 1485) una vez que vio a la conquista normanda de Inglaterra, el rey Ricardo El León alegre, La Cruzadas – todos los 7 de ellos, el italiano temprano Renacimiento – un período de tiempo antes de la “revolución industrial”, la humanidad contribuido muy poco a los niveles mundiales de CO2. La Edad Media vivió un período de calentamiento global que supera el calentamiento global de hoy. Yes, temperatures were higher than they are now, significantly higher. http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS%20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html#Hockey , http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/04/06/1049567563628.html , Sí, las temperaturas fueron más altas de lo que son ahora, mucho más elevado. http://www.friendsofscience.org/assets/documents/FOS% 20Essay/Climate_Change_Science.html # Hockey , http://www.theage.com.au/articles / 2003/04/06/1049567563628.html ,

    “A review of more than 240 scientific studies has shown that today’s temperatures are neither the “warmest ever” nor are the Temperatures producing extreme conditions “never seen before”. “Una revisión de más de 240 estudios científicos han demostrado que las temperaturas de hoy no son ni la más cordial” nunca “ni las temperaturas extremas condiciones de producir” nunca antes visto “. The findings of these 240 studies stand in stark contrast to the claims of the alarmists. Los resultados de estos estudios de 240 están en marcado contraste con las pretensiones de los alarmistas. The findings prove that the world had a medieval warm period between the ninth and 14th centuries, with world temperatures significantly higher than today’s. Los resultados demuestran que el mundo había un período medieval cálido entre los siglos IX y 14, con temperaturas significativamente más altas que el mundo de hoy. They also confirm claims that a little Ice Age began in about 1300, with the world cooling dramatically. Confirman asimismo afirma que una pequeña Edad de Hielo comenzaron aproximadamente en 1300, con el mundo de refrigeración dramáticamente. Just before the turn of the century, in 1900, the world began to warm up, but as of today, has still to reach the balmy temperatures of the Middle Ages.  The end of the little Ice Age is significant because it implies that the records used by climate scientists (THE ALARMISTS) date from when the Earth was relatively cold, thereby exaggerating the significance of today’s temperature rise. Justo antes del cambio de siglo, en 1900, el mundo empezó a calentarse, pero a partir de hoy, aún tiene que llegar a las temperaturas cálidas de la Edad Media. El fin de la pequeña Edad de Hielo es significativa porque implica que los registros utilizados por los científicos del clima (los alarmistas) fecha a partir de cuando la Tierra fue relativamente frío, con lo que exagerar la importancia de la elevación de la temperatura de hoy. According to the researchers, the evidence confirms suspicions that today’s alleged “unprecedented” temperatures are simply the result of examining temperature change over too short a period. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/04/06/1049567563628.html Según los investigadores, la evidencia confirma las sospechas de que a día de hoy supuestos “sin precedentes” las temperaturas son simplemente el resultado del examen de los cambios de temperatura durante un período demasiado corto. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/04/06/ 1049567563628.html

    The Global Warming Alarmists have choosen the “Little Ice Age” to begin their temperature measurements and comparisons. Los alarmistas del calentamiento global han elegido la “Pequeña Edad de Hielo” para comenzar sus mediciones de temperatura y las comparaciones. By choosing the coldest period in Earth’s history over the last 10,000 years, the Alarmists are assured of finding data that will show a warming trend. Al elegir el periodo más frío en la historia de la Tierra en los últimos 10.000 años, los alarmistas están seguros de encontrar datos que muestran una tendencia al calentamiento. But the warming trend is not unusual when compared to all of Earth’s prior warming trends. Pero la tendencia al calentamiento no es inusual en comparación con todas las tendencias de calentamiento previo de la Tierra.

    Philip Stott, emeritus professor of bio-geography at the University of London, said: “What has been forgotten in all the discussion about global warming is a proper sense of history.” http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/04/06/1049567563628.html , http://www.michaelkeller.com/news/news575.htm , http://www.stanford.edu/~moore/history_health.html , http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/886494/posts , http://www.climateaudit.org/?p=2514 Philip Stott, profesor emérito de biogeografía en la Universidad de Londres, dijo: “Lo que se ha olvidado en todo el debate sobre el calentamiento global es un sentido propio de la historia”. http://www.theage.com.au/articles / 2003/04/06/1049567563628.html , http://www.michaelkeller.com/news/news575.htm , moore http://www.stanford.edu/ ~ / history_health.html , http://www. freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/886494/posts , http://www.climateaudit.org/?p=2514
     

    If mankind were to cease all economic production and cease buring all carbon fuels, at best, a 2% reduction in CO2 levels could be had. Si la humanidad fuera a cesar toda la producción económica y dejar de enterrar a todos los combustibles de carbono, como mucho, un 2% de reducción en los niveles de CO2 podría ser tenido. Additional reductions from mankind would need to involve an end to “respiration” – mankind would need to stop breathing. Las reducciones adicionales de la humanidad, se debería dirigirse a un fin a la “respiración” – la humanidad, se tendría que dejar de respirar. Having achieved these miniscule reductions, at fantastic cost and loss of personal freedom, nature could, in the bat of an eye, dramatically reverse any man made reduction. Después de haber logrado estas reducciones minúsculo, a un costo fantástica y la pérdida de la libertad personal, la naturaleza podría, en el bate de un ojo, dramáticamente revertir cualquier hombre de reducción. You see, temperature drives the CO2 level, CO2 levels do not drive temperature. Usted ve, las unidades de la temperatura del nivel de CO2, los niveles de CO2 no conduzca temperatura.

    http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=8326 http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=8326 , http://www.stanford.edu/~moore/Boon_To_Man.html , http://www.stanford.edu/ ~ moore / Boon_To_Man.html

    Recent studies call into question wether Global Warming is continuing – the studies refute the wild claims concerning the amount of  ”warming” that occurred in the 1990′s. Estudios recientes ponen en duda el calentamiento global el clima continúa – los estudios de refutar las argumentaciones sobre la cantidad de “calentamiento” que se produjeron en la década de 1990. Even the ultra-green “Discovery Channel” has noted studies which indicate “global warming” is on “hold” and may not reappear for decades. Incluso los estudios ultra-verde “de Discovery Channel” ha tomado nota de lo que indica el “calentamiento global” es “en espera” y no puede volver a aparecer durante décadas. That “Global Temperatures have flatlined since 2001″. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ 29469287 / Que la temperatura global “han flatlined desde 2001”. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ 29469287 /

    The Boston Globe has asked, “Where is the Global Warming?”, before noting, “ But for many people, the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change . The Boston Globe ha preguntado, “¿Dónde está el calentamiento global?”, Antes de señalar: “Pero para muchas personas, la ciencia del cambio climático no es tan importante como la religión del cambio climático. When Al Gore insisted yet again at a conference last Thursday that there can be no debate about global warming , he was speaking not with the authority of a man of science, but with the closed-minded dogmatism of a religious zealot . Cuando Al Gore insistió una vez más en una conferencia el jueves pasado que no puede haber debate sobre el calentamiento global, no estaba hablando con la autoridad de un hombre de ciencia, pero con el dogmatismo de mente cerrada de un fanático religioso. Dogma and zealotry have their virtues, no doubt. Dogma y fanatismo tienen sus virtudes, sin duda. But if we want to understand where global warming has gone, those aren’t the tools we need.” http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2009/03/08/wheres_global_warming/ Pero si queremos entender que el calentamiento global se ha ido, esas no son las herramientas que necesitamos “. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2009/03/08/wheres_global_warming/

    UPDATE: 11/05/09 UPDATE: 11/05/09

    Carbon Dioxide irrelevant in climate debate says MIT Scientist Dióxido de carbono irrelevante en el debate climático, dice científico del MIT

    The pdf file located at the link above from the Science and Public Policy Institute has absolutely, convincingly, and irrefutably proven the theory of Anthropogenic Global Warming to be completely false. El archivo que se encuentra en pdf en el enlace anterior de la Ciencia y Políticas Públicas Instituto no tiene absolutamente, de forma convincente, e irrefutablemente demostrado la teoría del calentamiento global antropogénico ser completamente falsa.

    Professor Richard Lindzen of MIT’s peer reviewed work states “we now know that the effect of CO2 on temperature is small, we know why it is small, and we know that it is having very little effect on the climate.” http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/monthly_report/sppi_monthly_co2_report_july.html http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cooler_heads_lindzen-talk-pdf.pdf Profesor Richard Lindzen del MIT revisión inter pares de los estados de trabajo “ahora sabemos que el efecto del CO2 sobre la temperatura es pequeño, sabemos por qué es pequeño, y sabemos que está teniendo un efecto muy poco sobre el clima”. http://scienceandpublicpolicy .org/monthly_report/sppi_monthly_co2_report_july.html http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cooler_heads_lindzen-talk-pdf.pdf

    The global surface temperature record, which we update and publish every month, has shown no statistically-significant “global warming” for almost 15 years. El registro de la temperatura superficial global, que actualizará y publicará cada mes, no ha mostrado estadísticamente significativa “calentamiento global” por casi 15 años. Statistically-significant global cooling has persisted for very nearly eight years. significativo enfriamiento global-Estadísticamente se ha mantenido durante casi ocho años. Even a strong el Nino – expected in the coming months – will be unlikely to reverse the cooling trend. http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/images/stories/papers/originals/co2_report_july_09.pdf Incluso un fuerte El Niño – se espera en los próximos meses – es improbable que invertir la tendencia al enfriamiento. http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/images/stories/papers/originals/co2_report_july_09.pdf
     
    One of the basic premises of Global Warming rests on the assumption that CO2 not only “holds” heat in the earth’s atmosphere, but that it, CO2, also prevents the heat from radiating out into space during earths normal cooling process. Una de las premisas básicas del calentamiento global se basa en el supuesto de que el CO2 no sólo “tiene” el calor en la atmósfera de la Tierra, sino que, CO2, también evita que el calor se irradia hacia el espacio durante el normal proceso de enfriamiento terrestre. Dr. Richard Lindzen of MIT has published a study, which underwent comprehensive peer review prior to publication, which demostrates the flaws or inaccuracies in this theory. El Dr. Richard Lindzen, del MIT, ha publicado un estudio, que fue sometido a revisión completa antes de su publicación, que demostrates los defectos o inexactitudes en esta teoría. Dr. Litzen’s study refutes the theory that CO2 is currently preventing heat radiation, because the study demonstrates that there has been no decrease in heat radiation as had been assumed. http://www.watchmanbiblestudy.com/News/2009/08/18%20Carbon%20Dioxide%20irrelevant%20in%20climate%20debate%20says%20MIT%20Scientist.htm http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/images/stories/papers/originals/co2_report_july_09.pdf Litzen de estudio del Dr. refuta la teoría de que el CO2 es actualmente la prevención de la radiación de calor, ya que el estudio demuestra que no ha habido ninguna disminución de la radiación de calor como se había supuesto. http://www.watchmanbiblestudy.com/News/2009/08/18 %%%% 20Carbon 20Dioxide 20irrelevant% 20in% 20debate 20climate 20says%%% 20MIT 20Scientist.htm http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/images/stories/papers/originals/co2_report_july_09.pdf
     
    ADDITIONAL READINGS ON THE TOPIC: Lecturas adicionales sobre el tema:
    Dr Richard Lindzen, PhD Harvard University and Alfred P Sloan Professor of Atmospheric Science at MIT, ; “Don’t Believe the Hype Al Gore is wrong. El Dr. Richard Lindzen, PhD Universidad de Harvard y Alfred Sloan P Profesor de Ciencias Atmosféricas en el MIT,; “No creas lo que dicen de Al Gore está mal. There’s no “consensus” on global warming.” – http://www.opinionjournal.com/extra/?id=110008597 No hay “consenso” sobre el calentamiento global “. – http://www.opinionjournal.com/extra/?id=110008597
    And this on Britian’s High Court (Supreme Court of Britian) rulings concerning the inaccuracy of Al Gore’s film, an “Inconvenient Truth”,  ”If the UK Government had not agreed to send to every secondary school in England a corrected guidance note making clear the mainstream scientific position on these nine “errors”, he, the ruling Judge, would have made a finding that the Government’s distribution of the film and the first draft of the guidance note earlier in 2007 to all English secondary schools had been an unlawful contravention of an Act of Parliament prohibiting the political indoctrination of children.” Yes, the Highest Court in England ruled Gore’s movie was political indoctrination and not science. http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/monckton/goreerrors.html Y esto en el Alto Britian Tribunal de Justicia (Tribunal Supremo de Gran Bretaña) la jurisprudencia relativa a la inexactitud de Gore película de Al, una “verdad incómoda”, “Si el Gobierno del Reino Unido no había accedido a enviar a todas las escuelas secundarias en Inglaterra una orientación corregida nota con claridad los científicos posición generalizada en estos nueve “errores”, él, el fallo del juez, habría hecho un hallazgo que el Gobierno de distribución de la película y el primer borrador de la nota de orientación a principios de 2007 a todas las escuelas secundarias Inglés había sido una violación ilícita de una ley del Parlamento que prohíbe el adoctrinamiento político de los niños. “Sí, el Alto Tribunal de Inglaterra declaró la película de Gore fue el adoctrinamiento político y no la ciencia. http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/monckton/goreerrors.html

    For a very specific review of 35 of the erroreous claims made by Gore in his film see: http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/monckton/goreerrors.html Para una revisión muy específica de 35 de las reclamaciones formuladas por erroreous Gore en su película, véase: http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/monckton/goreerrors.html

    Notice: WATTS UP WITH THAT can now be located at Wattsupwiththat.com Aviso: WATTS CON QUE ARRIBA ahora se pueden localizar en Wattsupwiththat.com

    For a very humorous, yet alarming, post on how the “scientific consensus” on the issue of Climate Change have been reached, see this post on the creation of “THE HARVARD ENERGY INITIATIVE” and the “inititaves” relationship to climate science (An insiders look at the Harvard Faculty Club?). http://motls.blogspot.com/2006/04/richard-lindzen-climate-of-fear.html Por un gran sentido del humor, pero alarmante, poste en cómo el “consenso científico” sobre el tema del cambio climático se han alcanzado, véase este post sobre la creación de “LA INICIATIVA DE HARVARD DE ENERGÍA” y el inititaves “relación con la ciencia del clima (Una interna en el Faculty Club de Harvard?). http://motls.blogspot.com/2006/04/richard-lindzen-climate-of-fear.html

    “On the other hand, the funding of climate science as such has grown nearly by one order of magnitude since 1988. “Por otra parte, la financiación de la ciencia climática, como tal, ha crecido casi en un orden de magnitud desde 1988. Have you ever seen $1.7 billion, the amount that the climate science swallows annually? ¿Alguna vez has visto 1,7 mil millones dólares, la cantidad que las golondrinas ciencia del clima al año? Or one point seven billion dollars a year worth of mostly junk science? O uno punto siete millones de dólares al año por valor de ciencia basura en su mayoría? It’s not just the overall macroscopic number we are familiar with. No es sólo el número total macroscópicas que nos son familiares. I also know some of the microscopic mechanisms that generate it.” Sé también algunos de los mecanismos microscópicos que lo generan “.

    Harvard energy initiative Harvard iniciativa energética

    On Monday, we had a faculty lunch meeting at the Faculty Club and one of the topics was the so-called “Harvard energy initiative”. El lunes, tuvimos un almuerzo de la facultad en el Faculty Club y uno de los temas era la llamada “iniciativa energética de Harvard”. A short story is that a large amount of money was given to something described by these three words – and up to 10 new faculty positions are expected to be created – except that no one knows what “Harvard energy initiative” means and what people should be hired. Una historia corta es que una gran cantidad de dinero fue entregada a algo descrito por estas tres palabras – y hasta 10 nuevos puestos de profesores se espera que se creen – excepto que nadie sabe qué “iniciativa energética de Harvard” significa y lo que la gente debe ser contratado. So one of the rather well-known Earth and Planetary Scientists at Harvard decided to meet with the physics department and to ask for ideas what “Harvard energy initiative” could mean…… The well known Physicis Department Professor stated, “I know what “high energy physics” means – we study physics of high-energy particles to determine the architecture of matter at very short distances” ….. Así que una de las más conocidas de la Tierra y los científicos planetarios en Harvard decidió reunirse con el departamento de física y de pedir lo que las ideas “iniciativa energética de Harvard” podría significar … … El conocido profesor del Departamento de Physicis declaró: “Yo sé lo de” alto física de la energía “se entiende – que estudian física de partículas de alta energía para determinar la arquitectura de la materia a distancias muy cortas” … .. Obviously, our colleague has a different energy in mind. Obviamente, nuestro colega tiene una energía diferente en mente. Energy whose main feature is that it is not conserved. Energía, cuya principal característica es que no se conserva. Energy that does not commute with momentum because whenever energy has to commute, we lose energy. Energía que no se conmuta con el impulso de la energía porque cada vez que tiene que viajar, perdemos energía. It’s more about the energy industry except that the initiative will quite obviously be anti-industry because of the very basic philosophical preconceptions of those who are trying to kickstart the project. Se trata más de la industria energética, salvo que la iniciativa será, obviamente, muy contrarios a la industria debido a los prejuicios filosóficos más básicos de los que están tratando de dar un impulso al proyecto. If you think for a while, you know exactly what will most likely happen. Si usted piensa que por un tiempo, usted sabe exactamente lo más probable es que suceda. They will probably hire a couple of not-so-intelligent people and promote them to climate scientists and energy initiative professors who will strengthen the “scientific consensus” that the “climate change is real” and the humankind is approaching a catastrophe. Probablemente va a contratar un par de personas no tan inteligentes y promover a los científicos del clima y la energía profesores iniciativa que fortalezca el “consenso científico” que el cambio climático “es real” y la humanidad se está acercando a una catástrofe. They won’t be developing any new energy technologies because this is what either the greedy corporations or MIT are doing. No será el desarrollo de cualquier tecnología nueva energía, porque esto es lo que cualquiera de las corporaciones codiciosas o MIT está haciendo. Harvard’s image is different and its energy initiative will be doing something else except that no one knows what it is.  The proposed energy initiative should include the Physics Department, Earth and Planetary Sciences, the Kennedy School of Government, the Harvard Law School, and virtually any other Harvard school you can think of. la imagen de Harvard es diferente y su iniciativa sobre la energía va a hacer otra cosa excepto que nadie sabe lo que es. La iniciativa energética propuesta debe incluir el Departamento de Física, Ciencias Terrestres y Planetarias, la Kennedy School of Government, Harvard Law School, y prácticamente cualquier otra escuela de Harvard que se pueda imaginar. Great. Gran. So what kind of science will you do by combining these people? Entonces, ¿qué tipo de ciencia va a hacer mediante la combinación de estas personas? Note that the university in this story, namely Harvard University, is not such a bad school after all. Tenga en cuenta que la universidad en esta historia, a saber, la Universidad de Harvard, no es una escuela tan malo después de todo. In fact, it is the most prestigious school in the world. De hecho, es la escuela más prestigiosa en el mundo. Once you see what mechanisms determine how the new money is spent at Harvard, you may guess how good an investment are the billions of new dollars that are currently flowing to the US climate science every year. Una vez que vea lo que los mecanismos que determinan cómo el nuevo dinero se gasta en Harvard, puede adivinar lo bien que una inversión son los miles de millones de nuevos dólares que actualmente están fluyendo a la ciencia del clima de EE.UU. cada año. Most of this amount is wasted money paid to the people who don’t want to make progress in science. La mayor parte de esta cantidad se desperdicia el dinero pagado a las personas que no quieren avanzar en la ciencia. Instead, they have already decided that they already know the most important insights about the world – that it is approaching a climate apocalypse – and by being paid, they do what is really important, namely to increase the political power of the “true believers” who are going to “save the world”. En su lugar, ya han decidido que ya conocen las ideas más importantes sobre el mundo – que se aproxima un apocalipsis climático – y por ser pagados, hacen lo que es realmente importante, a saber, aumentar el poder político de los “verdaderos creyentes” que van a “salvar el mundo”. Yes, indeed, I am talking about $1.7 billion worth of religious bigots, and I apologize to the few exceptions for this generalization.””  I reccommend the full post: http://motls.blogspot.com/2006/04/richard-lindzen-climate-of-fear.html Sí, por supuesto, estoy hablando de unos US $ 1,7 mil millones de fanáticos religiosos, y pido disculpas a las pocas excepciones a esta generalización. “” Yo recomiendo el post completo: http://motls.blogspot.com/2006/04/richard- Lindzen-clima-de-fear.html

    Also See: Lindzen: Deconstructing global warming http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/10/27/lindzen-deconstructing-global-warming/ containing a PDF link to Dr Lindzen’s full report. Ver además: Lindzen: Deconstruyendo el calentamiento global http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/10/27/lindzen-deconstructing-global-warming/ que contiene un enlace a PDF de informe completo en Lindzen Dr. The report sites the fact that two of the leading “proponents” of Global Warming admit that the “true science” is unsettled, however, that doesn’t matter – “we shouldn’t let that stop us from implementing “other agendas”. Los sitios de la memoria del hecho de que dos de los principales “promotores” del calentamiento global admitir que la “ciencia verdadera” es inestable, sin embargo, eso no importa – “no debemos dejar que nos impiden la aplicación de” otros programas “. Read it for yourself ……. Léalo usted mismo … …. “The idea of climate change should be seen as an intellectual resource around which our collective and personal identities and projects can form and take shape. “La idea del cambio climático debe ser visto como un recurso intelectual en torno al cual nuestras identidades colectivas y personales y los proyectos se pueden formar y tomar forma. We need to ask not what we can do for climate change, but to ask what climate change can do for us….Because the idea of climate change is so plastic, it can be deployed across many of our human projects and can serve many of our psychological, ethical, and spiritual needs.We will continue to create and tell new stories about climate change and mobilize them in support of our projects. Necesitamos No preguntes lo que podemos hacer por el cambio climático, pero para pedir lo que el cambio climático puede hacer por nosotros …. Porque la idea del cambio climático es tan plástica, que se puede implementar en muchos de nuestros proyectos humanos y puede servir a muchos de nuestra psicológicos, éticos y espirituales needs.We seguirá para crear y contar historias nuevas sobre el cambio climático y movilizar en apoyo de nuestros proyectos. These myths transcend the scientific categories of ‘true’ and ‘false’”. The actual words from the “Founders” of Climate Change Science …….. Estos mitos trascienden las categorías científicas de «verdadero» y «falso». Las palabras reales de los Fundadores “de la Ciencia del Cambio Climático … … .. I guess they have no shame. http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cooler_heads_lindzen-talk-pdf.pdf Supongo que no tienen vergüenza. http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cooler_heads_lindzen-talk-pdf.pdf

    Dr. Lindzen’s actual presentation on this subject can be viewed here: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=22D4DD5727161348 reales de la presentación del Dr. Lindzen sobre este tema se puede ver aquí: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=22D4DD5727161348

    See the BBC produced Documentary “The Global Warming Swindle” here:  Ver la BBC produjo el documental “La estafa del calentamiento global”aquí: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5576670191369613647&ei=Lvn1S9a4G4GKqwK528X7Ag&q=The+Great+Global+Warming+Swindle#

    The Immigration Debate; The Arizona Law & Its Place In The History Of American Immigration Laws

    Enough already with the race baiting from the left …..

    Arizona’s new law is neither unconstitutional nor does Arizona’s new law call for racial profiling.

    For a discussion of Arizona’s new “immigration law” see  https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/the-immigration-debate-arizonas-law-facts-from-fiction-are-you-tired-of-being-lied-to/     or https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/14/el-debate-de-inmigracion-la-ley-de-arizona-hechos-de-la-ficcion-%c2%bfesta-cansado-de-que-nos-mientan/ 

    THE CURRENT POLITICAL SPIN

    The left is trying to create a poltical advantage and distract the American public from the real issues of unemployment a faltering economy and rising crime rates with fabricated claims of racism in the new Arizona law, a law which is incorrectly being called an “immigration law” when in fact the law focuses on the prevention of criminal acts and the enforcement of exisiting criminal laws. See: https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/the-immigration-debate-arizonas-law-facts-from-fiction-are-you-tired-of-being-lied-to/     or  https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/14/el-debate-de-inmigracion-la-ley-de-arizona-hechos-de-la-ficcion-%c2%bfesta-cansado-de-que-nos-mientan/ 

    The race baiters are not interested in uniting our neighborhoods, healing our wounds or bringing people together, for making our Country a safer place for all, for bringing an end to the illegal drug smuggling or sexual trafficking trade, for ending 21st century slavery ……. they are hoping to bring destruction, to destroy communities and to divide the people for their own personal gain.  

    Earliest History of America’s Immigration Laws

    The United States Constitution was adopted in 1789. Congress adopted the first “immigration law” one year later in 1790 when it granted citizenship to the first “immigrants”. Subsequent legislation passed in the 1790’s required prospective citizens to renounce or give up former allegiances to other “Sovereign Nations” and to surrender titles of nobility granted by foreign monarchs prior to being granted citizenship in our great country. 

    In 1798 Congress authorized the President to expel “dangerous” aliens in the Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act. 

    The Naturalization Act of 1802 expanded the provisions of the 1795 law and created a “five-year legal residency requirement” prior to granting an immigrant citizenship. Then in 1808, Congress enacted a law forbidding the importation of slaves.

    No official immigration records were kept until 1820, but it is estimated that 250,000 immigrants, 1/4 of a million people, arrived in the United States between 1790 and 1820 – the 1st 30 years of the Constitutionally governed United States. It is estimateed that an additional 10 million immigrants came to American between 1820 and 1875 when the US passed its first “restrictive” immigration law.

    A total of 10 million 250 thousand people “immigrated” to the United States between 1790 and 1875. The first “restrictive immigration law” in 1875 excluded “convicts” and “prostitutes”, the 1st classes of individuals to be denied “lawful entry” into the United States. Those same “class” restrictions continue to this day. 

    In 1903 the United States added “anarchists” to the list of those to be “denied entry” into the United States. An anarchist is someone who who seeks to overturn, by violence, all constituted forms and institutions of society and government, with no purpose of establishing any other system of order in the place of that destroyed. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/anarchists

    In 1918 Congress expanded this exclusion when it enacted the “Anarchist Act” which expanded the definition of those to be denied entry to include,  “a person who promotes disorder or excites revolt against any established rule, law, or custom.”. The Act of 1918 did not only deny admission to the United States but also provided a basis to deport “anarchists” out of the Country.

    The Act specifically identified the following people

                (a) aliens who are anarchists;

    (b) aliens who advise, advocate, or teach, or who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, society, or group, that advises, advocates, or teaches opposition to all organized government;
    (c) aliens who believe in, advise, advocate, or teach, or who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, association, society, or group, that believes in, advises, advocates, or teaches:

    (1) the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law, or
    (2) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific individuals or of officers generally, of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character, or
    (3) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or
    (4) sabotage;
    (d) aliens who write, publish, or cause to be written or published, or who knowingly circulate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly cause to be circulated, distributed, printed, or displayed, or knowingly have in their possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, or display any written or printed matter, advising, advocating, or teaching opposition to all government, or advising, advocating, or teaching:

    (1) the ovethrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law, or
    (2) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers of the Government of the United States or of any other government, or
    (3) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property, or
    (4) sabotage;
    (e) aliens who are members of, or affiliated with, any organization, association, society, or group, that writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to be written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that has in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, or display, any written or printed matter of the character in subdivision (d).  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchist_Exclusion_Act

    Limits on Immigration- Immigration Quotas – The 1920’s

    In the 1920’s Congress implemented the first numerical controls on immigration. Enacted first, as a temporary measure, the 1921 Quota Law marked a major shift in the U.S. approach to immigration control. The law limited immigration from each foreign nation to 3% of the number of foreign-born persons of that nationality residing in the U.S. as of the 1910 census.

    The total quota for the Country was 357,000 new immigrants per year.

    In 1924, Congress further restricted immigration by reducing the immigration quota from 3% of foreign-born persons under the 1910 census to 2% of the foreign-born under the 1890 census. This change cut the total quota of new immigrants per year to 164,667.

    During the 1930’s and the “Great Depression” more people emigrated out of (left) the United States than “immigrated” into the Country. In the entire decade of the 1930’s only 500,000 ( 1/2 million) immigrants entered the United States. In the year 1932 only 35,000 (thirty five thousand) immigrants entered the country while 100,000 (one hundred thousand) left or emigrated out of the country.

    In the 1940’s the United States negotoated the first of its “temporary worker” programs with Mexico. 

    In a 1948  response to problems created by the devastation of Europe in World War II and the Nazi Holocaust, Congress adopted the Displaced Persons Act that allowed for the admission into the U.S. of some 400,000 non-citizens. 

    The Sovereign Right To Regulate Immigration

    All sovereign nations have the right to regulate immigration.

    See: The Human Rights Library of the University of Minnesota: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

    “The broad power of the federal government to regulate the admission, removal, and naturalization of non-citizens has its roots in the early history of the United States. Modern statutes, Supreme Court decisions, and federal agency regulations attest to the plenary (plenary = unlimited or full) nature of this power.” http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

    THE SOURCE OF THE FEDERAL POWER 

    Throughout the history of the United States the Supreme Court has upheld all manner of federal statutes regulating immigration. By contrast, Supreme Court decisions preclude states from passing legislation that directly impinges on this area of federal dominion. The Supreme Court’s basis for action is clear when the area regulated is naturalization. Article 1, § 8, clause 4, of the United States Constitution specifically grants Congress the power to establish a “uniform Rule of Naturalization.” By expressly allocating this power to Congress, the Constitution prevents the confusion that would result if individual states could bestow citizenship. The Constitution does not, however, explicitly provide that the power to deny admission or remove non-citizens rests with the federal government as opposed to state governments. In the early immigration cases the Supreme Court faced the problem of identifying the source of the federal government’s exclusive and plenary power over immigration. Ultimately the Supreme Court found the plenary power to be an inherent sovereign power. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

    Early cases cite specific constitutional provisions to support the inference that the federal government possesses complete power over international relations, including immigration matters. In addition to citing the foreign commerce power, the Supreme Court in Nishimura Ekiu v. United States (Sup.Ct.1892) cites the power to establish a uniform rule of naturalization; the power to declare war, and to provide and maintain armies and navies; and the power to make all laws necessary and proper. The Fong Yue Ting v. United States (Sup.Ct.1893) case adds the power to define and punish piracies, felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

    The Migration and Importation Clause in Article I, § 9, clause 1, provides: “The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight….”. The specific limit on congressional power before 1808 could be construed to imply that after 1808, Congress would have power over migration and importation. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/immigrationlaw/chapter2.html

    The War Power, found in Article I, § 8, clause 11, is an additional source of federal control over immigration. The War Power gives Congress the authority to “declare war.” The War Power authorized the exclusion and expulsion of enemy aliens. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of such provisions in Ludecke v. Watkins (Sup.Ct.1948).

    National Sovereignty

    The United States Supreme Court ultimately found the source of the federal power to regulate immigration in a combination of international and constitutional legal principles. The Chinese Exclusion Case (Sup.Ct.1889) was the first case to hold that the federal power to exclude non-citizens is an incident of national sovereignty. The Court reasoned that every national government has the inherent authority to protect the national public interest. Immigration is a matter of vital national concern. Furthermore, it is the role of the federal government to oversee matters of national concern, while it is the province of the states to govern local matters. Therefore, the Court found that the inherent sovereign power to regulate immigration clearly resides in the federal government.

    Subsequent cases reinforced national sovereignty as the source of federal power to control immigration and consistently reasserted the plenary and unqualified scope of this power.

    Fong Yue Ting v. United States (Sup.Ct.1893) explicitly held that the power to expel or deport (now “remove”) non-citizens rests upon the same ground as the exclusion power and is equally “absolute and unqualified.”

    “To be a sovereign nation, a people must have control over its territory. Without such control, a nation would be unable to govern itself and its borders effectively, and as a result, would be subject to the sovereignty of other nations. The power to regulate immigration is therefore inherent in the Constitution’s creation of a sovereign nation.” 

    THE SCOPE OF THE FEDERAL POWER

    To date there have been no successful challenges to federal legislation that refuses admission to classes of non-citizens or removes resident aliens. Federal immigration power thus appears limitless. Indeed, the Supreme Court has stated: “[O]ver no conceivable subject is the legislative power of Congress more complete.” Fiallo v. Bell (Sup.Ct.1977), Kleindienst v. Mandel, (Sup.Ct.1972), and Oceanic Steam Nav. Co. v. Stranahan (Sup.Ct.1909). Extreme judicial deference bears witness to the truth of this statement.

    The United States Constitution & The United Nations Charter

    The Constitution and the U.N. Charter have been dismissed as grounds for opposing federal immigration power. The federal courts and immigration authorities have without much consideration rejected an assertion in Hitai v. INS (2d Cir.1965), Vlissidis v. Anadell (7th Cir.1959), and Matter of Laurenzano (BIA 1970) that the immigration quota system is inconsistent with the U.N. Charter. The Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of federal statutes that detain non-citizens for the brief period necessary for their removal proceedings (Demore v. Kim (Sup.Ct.2003)) and that exclude non-citizens on the basis of race (Chinese Exclusion Case (1889)) and political belief (Kleindienst v. Mandel (Sup.Ct.1972)). Moreover, excluded non-citizens have no constitutional right to a hearing. Shaughnessy v. Mezei (Sup.Ct.1953). Mezei also determined that excludable non-citizens can be indefinitely detained if their country of origin refuses to accept them.

    THE FUNCTIONS OF THE THREE BRANCHES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN REGULATING IMMIGRATION

    The plenary and unqualified power of the federal government to regulate immigration, naturalization, and related foreign policy belongs to Congress. The possible international consequences of decisions in this area have made the federal judiciary extremely reluctant to substitute its judgment for the legislature’s. Justice Jackson articulated the Court’s position in Harisiades v. Shaughnessy (Sup.Ct.1952): “[A]ny policy towards aliens is vitally and intricately interwoven with contemporaneous policies in regard to the conduct of foreign relations, the war power, and the maintenance of a republican form of government. Such matters are so exclusively entrusted to the political branches of government as to be largely immune from judicial inquiry or interference.” Subsequent decisions echo this sentiment. Since the judiciary poses no obstacle, Congress has been historically free to “exclude aliens altogether or prescribe the terms and conditions upon which they may enter and stay in this country.” Lapina v. Williams (Sup.Ct.1914).

    For example, Congress exercised its plenary authority in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (“IIRIRA”) that facilitated the removal of non-citizens.

    The Supreme Court and the Paths To Citizenship

    The Fourteenth Amendment “contemplates two sources of citizenship, and two only, birth and naturalization. Citizenship by naturalization can only be acquired by naturalization under the authority and in the forms of law.” United States v. Wong Kim Ark (Sup.Ct.1898). As with exclusion and deportation (now “inadmissibility” and “removal”), the Supreme Court has accorded great deference to the naturalization guidelines set by Congress. In United States v. Ginsberg (1917) the Court stated, “An alien who seeks political rights as a member of this nation can rightfully obtain them only upon the terms and conditions specified by Congress. Courts are without authority to sanction changes or modifications; their duty is rigidly to enforce the legislative will….” In cases involving classifications in the naturalization process, the Court has given a near absolute presumption of validity to distinctions drawn by Congress.

    Congress has been historically free to “exclude aliens altogether or prescribe the terms and conditions upon which they may enter and stay in this country.” Lapina v. Williams (Sup.Ct.1914).

    The Executive Branch and Immigration

    As in other areas of the law, the function of executive agencies in the field of immigration is to enforce the legislation passed by Congress. The Executive Branch is not empowered to create Immigration Policy.

    A Brief History of 20th Century Immigration Law Reform 

    THE 1952 ACT

    The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA) consolidated previous immigration laws into one coordinated statute. As amended, the 1952 Act provided the foundation for immigration law in effect today.

    The 1952 Act retained the national origins quota and established a 150,000 person limit.

    Within the quota system, four types of entrance preferences were established. First preference was given to those entrants with skills or experience needed by the U.S. economy. Those persons with close family relations to U.S. citizens or permanent residents received lower preferences.

    It should be noted that spouses, children, and parents of U.S. citizens were not and are still not subject to the quota or preference system. For that reason, they are called “immediate relatives.”

    Following the passage of the 1952 law a large increase in apprehensions of deportable non-citizens occurred. The Border Patrol, numbering just about 1,000 strong, apprehended 800,000 deportable non-citizens in 1952; in 1954, that number increased to one million.

    THE 1965 AMENDMENTS

    The 1965 amendments replaced the national origins formula with a limit of 20,000 on each country in the Eastern Hemisphere and an overall limit of 170,000 for that hemisphere. The law established a quota of 120,000 for the Western Hemisphere, without preferences or country limits to take effect in 1968. ( A total of 290,000 new “legal immigrants” were to be allowed per year).

    The 1965 amendments abolished the old four-preference system and established in its place a seven-preference system for close relatives and those immigrants with needed occupational skills from the Eastern Hemisphere.

    Spouses of U.S. citizens were permitted to immigrate without reference to the quota or preference system.

    Under the preference system, unmarried adult children of U.S. citizens received highest preference; second preference was granted to spouses and unmarried children of permanent residents. The preference for immigrants of “exceptional ability” and those in “the professions” was changed from first to third. Other relatives of citizens and permanent residents received the fourth and fifth preferences. Sixth preference was given to needed workers. Seventh preference was allocated to refugees.

    THE 1976 AMENDMENT

    The 1976 amendment applied the Eastern Hemisphere preference system to the Western Hemisphere, both hemispheres were subject to the 20,000 per country limit and the seven preference system.

    THE 1978 AMENDMENT

    The 1978 amendment established a world-wide quota of 290,000 and applied the same per country limits and seven preference system to both hemispheres. This worldwide ceiling eliminated the hemisphere consideration and allowed visas to go where the need was greatest.

    Illegal Immigration in the 1970’s

    The number of deportable non-citizens, which fell in the 1950s, climbed rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, as did the number of total entries. In 1972, one half million deportable non-citizens were apprehended. By 1977, that annual figure had doubled. The Border Patrol had grown to a force of 2,400.

    The Immigration Service estimated that, between undetected border crossings and violations of legal entry conditions, millions of undocumented non-citizens were living in the U.S. in 1974. In 1979 the Border Patrol apprehended one million deportable non-citizens. That year, the INS employed almost 11,000 personnel and had a 300 million dollar budget.

    THE 1980 REFUGEE ACT

    The Carter Administration asked for special legislation to deal with the issue of the “”Mariel Boat Lift” that delivered 100,000’s of Cubans to the shores of Florida. It later became evident that Fidel Castro, the Communist dictator in Cuba, had emptied his prisons and placed untold number of Cuban criminal felons on the boats with the non-criminal Cubans seeking asylum in the United States. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariel_boatlift . The boat lift began on April 1, 1980 and ended in October 1980.

    Estimates vary on how many of the incoming immigrants were “undesirables” or former felons. The low estimate placed the number at 7,500 with a high estimate of 40,000 covicted felons. Congress adopted an official estimate of 12,500. Approximately 2700 of the immigrants were denied entry due to their criminal past.

    The “boat lift” was depicted in the movie “Scarface”.

    THE 1986 IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT (IRCA) 

    In 1980 the United States Census Bureau counted 2,047,000 undocumented non-citizens in the country. Based on the Bureau of Census experience in miscounting other segments of the population, the Bureau had estimated that there were 5,965,000 undocumented persons in the country on census day April 1, 1980. 

    The 1986 the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) dealt with the major problem of undocumented workers by imposing sanctions on employers while it legalized the status of undocumented entrants who had arrived prior to January 1, 1982.

    In response to the demand for foreign agricultural labor, IRCA created a program that granted temporary and permanent resident status to qualified agricultural workers.

    The IRCA did not substantially restructure the immigration law as it pertains to immigration quotas or the requirements for admission.

    Another major goal of IRCA was improvement of enforcement and services. The act increased border patrol as well as other enforcement activities of the INS to deter unlawful entry of aliens into the U.S..

    In exchange for the increased enforcement provisions of IRCA, Congress offered a broad amnesty for many undocumented non-citizens already present in the country. The one-time, limited amnesty program allowed qualified non-citizens who met its strict deadlines to obtain permanent resident status. To qualify, non-citizens were required to show that they had entered the United States before January 1, 1982, and had resided unlawfully and continuously in the United States from that date until the date they applied for amnesty. Non-citizens who entered with a valid nonimmigrant status that later expired could also qualify for amnesty by showing that their unlawful status was known to the U.S. government. Applicants were specifically required to (1) have been physically present in the U.S. since November 1986, except for “brief, casual, and innocent” absences; (2) meet most of the requirements of immigrant admissibility to the United States; (3) have not been convicted of any felony or of three or more misdemeanors committed in the United States; (4) have not assisted in any form of persecution; and (5) register for the draft, if required to do so.

    Non-citizens who met these requirements and filed an application between May 5, 1987, and May 4, 1988, were granted temporary residence. After 18 months of temporary residence, the non-citizens had one year in which to apply for adjustment to permanent resident status or they would become undocumented once again. To adjust to permanent resident status, applicants were again required to meet the criteria for permanent residence and also meet minimal English and civics requirements.

    IRCA mandated procedures to ensure strict confidentiality. The Act allowed voluntary organizations to receive applications and forward them to the INS. Whether a non-citizen applied through such an organization or directly to the INS, access to information in the applications was restricted to INS officers with no deportation responsibilities and the INS could only use the information to make a determination on the application or impose penalties for false statements.

    Despite these precautions, response to the amnesty program was less enthusiastic than expected. The INS originally estimated that between two and four million applications would be filed by the almost 5.5 million illegals estimated to be in the Country, but when the program ended, only 1.4 million people had applied for amnesty.

    A proposal to extend the application deadline passed the House of Representatives but died in the Senate, due to fears that an extension would send the message that the U.S. could not enforce its immigration laws. The program thus ended as planned on May 4, 1988.

    Another concern in adopting IRCA was the potential adverse financial impact on the states. For this reason, IRCA included extensive provisions disqualifying newly legalized non-citizens (except Cuban/Haitian entrants) from receiving most federal public welfare assistance for five years. Appropriations were also included to compensate state and local governments for other public assistance and medical benefits conferred upon people granted amnesty, as well as for the costs of incarcerating undocumented non-citizens and “Mariel” Cubans.

    IRCA also established a separate program for granting temporary and permanent status to qualified agricultural workers. This program was the result of agribusiness pressure for greater availability of such farm workers.

    THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1990

    In 1990, Congress passed a series of amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act, collectively referred to as the Immigration Act of 1990 (“1990 Act” also known as “IMMACT 90”).

    The most visible feature of IMMACT 90 was the increase by approximately 35% in the numerical limitation system, or overall immigration allowed. IMMACT 90 established an annual limit for worldwide immigration of 700,000 for three years, after which it decreased to 675,000. Because other provisions of the 1990 Act allowed immigration of groups not counted in the 700,000, and a separate law permitted as many as 125,000 refugees to be legally admitted, the actual worldwide immigration limit was closer to 800,000.

    This number represented a nearly 300% increase over the 290,000 immigrants allowed in 1978. 

    The 1990 Act increased the allocation for both family-related and employee-related immigration. In addition, the new law created a separate basis by which “diversity” immigrants, that is, nationals of countries with relatively low numbers of immigrants since 1965, could gain entry.

    Of the first 700,000 annual allotment, 465,000 visas were made available to family-sponsored immigrants, 140,000 for employment-based immigrants, and 55,000 for diversity immigrants.

    Beginning October 1, 1991, all family-sponsored immigration was limited to approximately 480,000 annually for two years, after which the yearly limit dropped to 465,000. The relatively large percentage of the overall limit allocated to family-related immigration reflected the continued commitment to family unity as a primary goal of immigration policy.

    There is still no limit on immigration by immediate relatives.

    The 1990 Act did guarantee admission of at least 226,000 other relatives of U.S. citizens and permanent residents, an increase of approximately 65,000 over the former quota, set just 4 years previously in 1986.

    THE ACTS OF 1996 (AEDPA and IIRIRA)

    Three new immigration acts were signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996.

    The first of these acts was the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), which became law on April 24, 1996.

    The second was the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (Welfare Reform Act), which became law on August 22, 1996. The changes made by the Welform Reform Act were part of a comprehensive reform of the American Welfare System and were not reforms solely made to target immigrants or illegal immigrants.

    The third was the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), which became law on September 30, 1996. The AEDPA and IIRIRA increased the number of criminal acts for which a non-citizen could be removed and eliminated nearly all forms of relief for non-citizens with criminal convictions.

    IIRIRA also stiffened the requirement for affidavits of support for immigrants entering on the basis of their relationship to U.S. citizens or permanent residents. A sponsor must agree in the affidavit to provide support for the immigrant at an annual income that is not less than 125% of the federal poverty standard. Also, the sponsor must reimburse the government if the non-citizen receives means-tested public benefits within ten years of admission, unless he or she has naturalized. IIRIRA also added a ground of removability for any non-citizen who becomes a “public charge” within five years of admission.

    Like the affidavit of support requirement, the 1996 Welfare Act reflected Congress’ concern that immigrants were placing an increasing burden on the federal budget. The Welfare Act made most non-citizens, including permanent residents, ineligible for federal benefits such as food stamps and Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Immigrants who entered the country after August 22, 1996, were ineligible for all means-tested public benefits for a period of five years. The Welfare Act also authorized the states to deny benefits to certain classes of non-citizens.

    In 1998 reinstated federal benefits for most permanent residents who were receiving them before passage of the Act.

    SECTION 434 & SECTION 642 of the 1996 ACT

    The 1996 law states the following: 

    Pursuant to § 434 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA, P.L. 104-193) and § 642 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA, P.L. 104-208) states and localities may not limit their governmental entities or officers from maintaining records regarding a person’s immigration status, or bar the exchange of such information with any federal, state, or local entity.

    This language was placed in the “Comprehensive Immigration Reform” of 1996 in repsonse to the creation “Sanctuary Cities” and the adoption of “Sanctuary City Statutes” by many U.S. cities,

    As the previous parargarphs clearly establish, Immigration Laws and Quotas are the responisbility of the Federal Government, any attempt by State of City Governments to usurp this power from the Federal Government is unconstitutional. A States attempt to enforce a Federal Immigration Law is not unconstitutional. Simply put, while States and Cities don’t create Immigration Law, they are expected to enforce them.

    http://www.ilw.com/immigrationdaily/news/2009,1026-crs.pdf

     WHAT IS A SANCTUARY CITY?

    The term “Sanctuary City” refers to a city or state that enacts policies which are favorable to illegal immigrants. Specifically, sanctuary cities often mandate local laws which prevent inquiry into a person’s immigration status.

    How does one administer the Federal, State and Local criminal laws and civil laws governing the allocation and distribution  of Federal, State and Local Welfare benefits? 

    Sanctuary policies are a violation of federal law, such as the section 642(a) of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which prohibits the embedding of illegal immigrants, and the March 2005 United States Supreme Court case, Muehler v Mena, which stated that law enforcement has the right to ask about immigration status.

    While the laws differ from Commmunity to Community, an example of a “Sanctuary City” ordinance, taken from the city of Tacoma Park, Maryland, follows: 

    “Introduced by: Councilmember Seamens First Reading: October 22, 2007:   Second Reading: October 29, 2007

    CITY OF TAKOMA PARK, MARYLAND, ORDINANCE NO. 2007-58,

    AN ORDINANCE REAFFIRMING AND STRENGTHENING THE CITY OF TAKOMA PARK’S IMMIGRATION SANCTUARY LAW

    WHEREAS, in 1985, as an expression of these values, the Takoma Park City Council passed the City of Refuge Ordinance, which prohibits City employees, including police officers, from cooperating with federal immigration authorities in the enforcement of civil and criminal immigration laws and prohibits City employees from requesting or disclosing information regarding the immigration status of individuals.

    NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF TAKOMA PARK, MARYLAND:

    SECTION 1. Title 9, Civil Liberties and Human Relations, Chapter 4, Rights of Non-U.S. Citizens in Takoma Park, of the Takoma Park Code (2004 edition) is amended as follows:                                                                   9.04.010 No City enforcement of immigration laws.                            A. No agent, officer or employee of the City, in the performance of official duties, shall assist the United States Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement in the investigation or arrest of any persons for civil or criminal violation of the immigration and nationality laws of the United States.

    9.04.020 No inquiries into citizenship. No agent, officer or employee of the City, in the performance of official duties, shall ask any person about his or her citizenship or immigration status or inquire about any person’s citizenship or immigration status with any third person. No agent, officer or employee of the City, in the performance of official duties, shall release any information regarding the citizenship or residency status of any City resident.immigration status of any individual to any third party.”

    http://www.takomaparkmd.gov/clerk/agenda/items/2007/102907-2.pdf

    The intent of the Tacoma Park, Maryland statute is obvious, a liberal attempt to usurp the Federal Governements authoirty to regulate immigration into the United States and to disrupt the co-operation between Federal, State and City Law Enforcement officials while they attempt to enforce the laws of this Country. How does one enforce Federal or State welfare laws that prohibit dispersing benefits to illegal aliens while reserving the benefits for citizens and “legal immigrants” if one cannot make a legal determination of who is in the Country legally and who is here illegally? 

    The devastating effect this short sighted, unconstitutional activity could have on the safety of America became all to clear on September 11, 2001.

     THE COMPREHENSIVE IMMIGRATION REFORM 09/11/2001

    The September 11, 2001, attacks resulted in significant changes in immigration law and policy. Congress passed several acts intended to improve national security, including the USA Patriot Act (115 Stat. 272), the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act (116 Stat. 543), and the Homeland Security Act (116 Stat. 2135). One of the most dramatic consequences of these measures was the elimination of the INS and the transfer of immigration functions to the Department of Homeland Security in 2003. Other provisions of these acts broadened the class of people who can be excluded or removed for terrorist activity, mandated increased screening of applicants for admission, and called for new data systems to track non-citizens in the U.S.

    Department of Homeland Security

    In November 2002, Congress passed the Homeland Security Act (116 Stat. 2135), which abolished the Immigration and Naturalization Service and transferred most immigration functions to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). As suggested by the Commission on Immigration Reform some years earlier (see § 1-7.6, supra), the INS’ service and enforcement functions were separated in this reorganization. These functions have been divided among three bureaus within the DHS: the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), which adjudicates immigrant and nonimmigrant petitions, naturalization petitions, asylum applications, and other matters; the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which includes the Border Patrol and immigration inspections at ports of entry; and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which enforces immigration laws in the interior of the U.S..

    Restrictions on Immigration

    The USA Patriot Act (115 Stat. 272) broadened the definition of terrorist as used in the grounds for inadmissibility and removal. Under this Act, anyone who endorses or provides financial support to a terrorist organization, or who actually participates in terrorist activities, is inadmissible or removable.

    To identify possible terrorists, U.S. consulates are required to check visa applicants’ names against “lookout lists” prior to issuing a visa.

    Monitoring of Non-Citizens in the U.S.

    After September 11, the INS was criticized for its inability to track non-citizens in the U.S. or to identify persons who might pose a threat to national security. In 2002, the INS promulgated regulations requiring nonimmigrants from twenty-five countries to register at INS district offices and report periodically as to their whereabouts and activities in the U.S. See § 8-2.2(c), infra. That same year, the INS and the State Department implemented a new database system, called “SEVIS” to track foreign students. Immigration authorities also began to enforce change of address reporting requirements that had been part of the INA since 1952 but were rarely publicized or enforced.

    ATTEMPTED IMMIGRATION REFORM OF 2007

    U.S. House Passes Drake Amendment to Eradicate Sanctuary Cities. Amendment withholds federal funding for localities that violate Section 642(a) of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act

    July 25, 2007

    Washington D.C. — The U.S. House of Representatives today passed an amendment by Representative Thelma Drake (R-Va.) to H.R. 2638, the Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2008.  Passing by a voice vote, Rep. Drake’s amendment aims to eliminate what are commonly referred to as “sanctuary policies” in local municipalities, whereby law enforcement officials are barred from asking suspects about their immigration status or reporting them to Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE).  The amendment will ensure that existing law is enforced uniformly across the country by withholding federal funding for cities that choose to violate section 642(a) of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA).

    “Although predominately a federal issue, we have all witnessed how the epidemic of illegal immigration can impact members of a local community,” said Rep. Drake.  “Solving this problem is going to require the commitment from all levels of government to engage in an active partnership.

    “Sanctuary cities undermine these partnerships by willfully and selectively choosing to disregard federal laws that are already on the books.  Most Americans agree that if you want to get serious about addressing our nation’s failed immigration system, enforcing existing laws is a good place to start.

    “This amendment says that when Congress took steps to eradicate sanctuary policies back in the Nineties, we meant it.  I am committed to ensuring that this language remains in the legislation and is signed into law by the President.”

    Under section 642(a) of IIRIRA, a “Federal, State, or local government entity or official may not prohibit, or in any way restrict, any government entity or official from sending to, or receiving from, the Immigration and Naturalization Service information regarding the citizenship or immigration status, lawful or unlawful, of any individual.”

    http://www.house.gov/apps/list/press/ca50_bilbray/morenews/drakeamend.shtml

    The Democratically controlled U.S. Senate blocked a vote on the Drake Amendment in 2007 & 2008.

    THE ARIZONA LAW 2009

    See: https://mcauleysworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/the-immigration-debate-arizonas-law-facts-from-fiction-are-you-tired-of-being-lied-to/

    The State of Arizona passed Arizona House Bill 2162 and it was signed into law on April 26, 2010. http://www.azleg.gov/legtext/49leg/2r/bills/hb2162c.htm

    On the day the law wasssigned into effect Arizona has at least 4 ”Sanctuary Cities” violating the Federal Law; Phoenix, Tuscon, Chandler and Mesa. 

    Section 3 of the Arizona is titled; “Cooperation and assistance in enforcement of immigration laws.”

    Section 3 of the Arizona Law mandates that all State, Local and City Employees enforce both Federal and State laws regarding criminal acts committed by illegal aliens. The law mandates that the laws be enforced “concurrently” by all Federal, State and Local law enforcement officials.

    Section 3 does not permit law enforcement officials to stop and ask anyone for their ID. No one!

    Section 3 does require that once law enforcement officials have “stoppped, detained or arrested” an individual and are “conducting a criminal investigation”, the suspect will be asked for identification.

    All indivuals who find themselves the subject of an investigation will be asked for their ID.

    PRESUMPTION OF LAWFUL CITIZENSHIP UNDER THE ARIZONA LAW

    Any individual who can produce one of the following pieces of identification is presumed to be a “lawful citizen of the United States”:  1).  A valid Arizona driver license. 2).  A valid Arizona nonoperating identification license. 3).  A valid tribal enrollment card or other form of tribal identification.  4).  If the entity requires proof of legal presence in the United States before issuance, any valid United States federal, state or local government issued identification.

    Section 3 also provides, “A law enforcement official or agency may not consider race, color or national origin in implementing the requirements of this subsection except to the extent permitted by the United States or Arizona Constitution”.

    FEDERAL DETERMINATION OF CITIZENSHIP STATUS UNDER THE ARIZONA LAW

    If some one is “stopped, detained or arrested” and cannot produce identification, the law enforcement officals are instructed to continue their investigation, however, the determination of whether any individual is an “illegal alien” is determined according to Federal Law: “In the implementation of this section, an alien’s immigration status may be determined by: 1.  A law enforcement officer who is authorized by the federal government to verify or ascertain an alien’s immigration status, or 2.  The United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement or the United States Customs and Border Protection Act pursuant to 8 United States Code section 1373(c).”

    THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG – SCAAP PAYMENTS – THE HIDDEN COST OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION: 

    SCAAP is a payment program administered by OJP, through its component the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), in conjunction with the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) bureau within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).2 SCAAP was authorized by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 to provide federal assistance to states and localities for the costs of incarcerating certain criminal aliens who are in custody based on state or local charges or convictions.3 In fiscal year (FY) 2005, BJA distributed $287.1 million in SCAAP payments to 752 state, county, and local jurisdictions.4

    The following table displays the 10 jurisdictions that received the largest SCAAP payments from the FY 2005 appropriation. Collectively, they accounted for nearly 69 percent of the SCAAP payments made from that appropriation.

    TOP TEN SCAAP RECIPIENTS – FY 2005
    State Jurisdiction Amount
    California State of California5 $ 85,953,191
    New York State of New York 24,022,356
    Texas State of Texas 18,582,484
    New York City of New York 15,893,255
    Florida State of Florida 12,806,110
    California Los Angeles County6 12,530,034
    Arizona State of Arizona 12,139,791
    California Orange County 6,562,437
    Illinois State of Illinois 4,731,269
    Massachusetts State of Massachusetts 4,728,549
    TOTAL $197,949,476
           

     

      The program only reimburses states and localities that incur correctional officer salary costs for incarcerating undocumented criminal aliens who: (1) have at least one felony or two misdemeanor convictions for violations of state or local law, and (2) are incarcerated for at least four consecutive days during the established reporting period.7 Applicants for funding are required to provide correctional officer salary costs, the total of all inmate days, and details about eligible inmates housed in their correctional facilities during that period.

    In April 2005, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report stating that 80 percent of the SCAAP aliens were incarcerated in the five states of Arizona, California, Florida, New York, and Texas in FY 2003.

    The total costs for Federal, State and Local detection, apprehension, arrest and incarceration  are in the 100,’s of billions of dollars.

    REPEAT OFFENDERS IN THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT COMMUNITY

    The Department of Homeland Security reported the following to Congress.

    Congression asked the Department of Homeland Security to determine how many criminal offenses were committed by criminal aliens who were released from state or local custody without a referral to DHS for removal from the United States.

    To address this question, the DHS performed limited testing to determine the number of subsequent arrests of criminal aliens who were released from state or local custody. We based our testing on information from the vetted FY 2004 SCAAP database, which was the last year when ICE reported to BJA on the status of every person identified in support of applications for SCAAP funding. There were 262,105 records in that database. We requested assistance from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to have those records compared to arrest data in the FBI’s National Crime Information Center (NCIC).

    After querying NCIC, the FBI provided us with nearly 433,000 text files that could not be searched by automated means. The volume of files was too great to search manually and quantify the results. Consequently, we judgmentally selected a sample of 100 criminal histories, which we reviewed for evidence of arrests of criminal aliens subsequent to June 30, 2003. The criminal histories for 73 of the 100 individuals documented at least one arrest after that date. Those 73 individuals accounted for a total of 429 arrests, with 878 charges and 241 convictions. These figures represent an average of nearly six arrests per individual.

    The charges for the 73 individuals ranged from traffic violations and trespassing to more serious crimes, such as burglary or assault. Some of those charges included:

    • 166 drug-related;

    • 37 immigration-related;

    • 213 burglary, robbery, or theft;

    • 40 assault;

    • 10 property damage;

     • 3 terrorist threat;

    and 13 weapons charges.

    Based on this limited sample, the DHS could not statistically extrapolate the number of offenses committed by undocumented criminal aliens who were released from local custody without a referral to ICE. Based on the information available to us in the criminal histories, we could not determine the number of the criminal aliens in our sample that were deported, if any, and later arrested after reentering the United States. We also could not determine if ICE was notified before the criminal aliens in our sample were released from custody. But if this data is indicative of the full population of 262,105 criminal histories, the rate at which released criminal aliens are rearrested is extremely high. http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/OJP/a0707/final.pdf

    IMMIGRATION 2010

    Today, in 2010, as in every year since the mid 1980′s, the US has allowed at least 1 million (1,000,000) new immigrants to enter this Country. More than 1 million each and every year. Yes, despite our economic down turn, over 1,000,000 immigrants entered this Country as LPRs (Legal Permanent Residents) in 2009. http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/lpr_fr_2009.pdf            Yes, the exact number, according to the Obama Administration, was            1,130, 818 ( 1 million, 130 thousand, 8 hundred and eighteen) for the year ending December 2009.

    An additional 1,000,000 immigrants were granted the rights of “Naturalized Citizens” in 2009. http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/natz_fr_2009.pdf

    In addition to these numbers, believe it or not, it is estimated that 160 million (160,000,000) non-immigrant admissions occur on an annual basis. Non-immigrant admission include, ”tourists and business travelers from Canada, Mexican nationals with Border Crossing Cards, ….”.  http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/ni_fr_2009.pdf

    The United States allows more “legal” immgration every year than all the other Countries in the world  combined.

    Obama caras con Hugo Chávez y Fidel Castro – No puede haber democracia para Honduras

    Obama caras con Hugo Chávez y Fidel Castro – No puede haber democracia para Honduras
    Publicado el 29 de junio de 2009, por mcauleysworld | Editar
    ¿Has visto este artículo

    Obama dice que expulsión de Honduras no era “legal”

    Por BEN FELLER, de Associated Press Ben Feller, periodista de Associated Press – hace 20 minutos
    WASHINGTON – El presidente Barack Obama declaró el lunes que Estados Unidos sigue considerando a Manuel Zelaya, el presidente de Honduras y asaltaron el golpe que lo obligó al exilio como “no legal”, la profundización del abismo entre la nación centroamericana y … … .. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090629/ap_on_go_pr_wh/us_us_honduras
    ¿Quieres conocer el resto “de la historia”?

    ¿Por qué Obama el Estado “Golpe de Estado”, si se trataba de un “golpe” no fue legal.

    El término “golpe” tiene un significado jurídico específico. Se refiere a “un ejercicio repentina y decisiva del poder por el cual el gobierno actual se subvierte sin el consentimiento del pueblo”. Cuando un país es legal y democráticamente elegido Gobierno “elimina” a un individuo, utilizando los mecanismos apropiados descritos en virtud del mismo la Constitución, no es un “golpe de Estado”, sino un acto legalmente autorizada de Estado.

    ¿Qué ha ocurrido en Honduras no fue un golpe de Estado, sino una preservación de la democracia se indica en la Constitución de Honduras.

    Honduras tiene una Constitución que ha sido actualizada por última vez y ratificado en 1982. “El presidente Zelaya fue elegido en 2006 para un mandato de cuatro años. La nueva Constitución de 1982 prohíbe a las elecciones. “Http://beltwayblips.dailyradar.com/story/coup_in_honduras/ Presdient Manuel Zelaya intentaba subvertir la Constitución de Honduras y pasivo a la reelección, cuando eso está prohibido por las leyes de Honduras. Existen procedimientos en Honduras para “cambiar” o “modifica” la Constitución, sin embargo, el Presidente Zelaya estaba tratando de subvertir el proceso legal y constitucional en Honduras. intento de Zelaya de modificar la Constitución de Honduras fue declarada “ilegal” e “inconstitucional” tanto por la Corte Suprema de Honduras y el Congreso de Honduras. Dos de las tres ramas del gobierno democráticamente electo de Honduras. Aquellas ramas de la governemnt movido en contra del presidente Zelaya y lo sacó del poder, no el militar. El militar fue simplemente el instrumento empleado por el Gobierno Popular de conseguir su libertad.

    Presidente Zelaya ordenó a los militares para ayudar a él ilegalmente subvertir la Constitución de Honduras, la propia Constitución que los militares ha jurado defender. En Honduras, al igual que en los Estados Unidos, el Ejército y Polticians juramento de “defender” o “proteger y defender” la Constitución, no un juramento de defender cualquier partido o un político. Desde los días de Adolfo Hitler tiene un jurado lealtad militar a un “líder” o “Führer” en lugar de al País que sirven.

    Cuando el presidente Zelaya ordenó a los militares para ayudar en su violación de la Constitución de Honduras, el Miliitary, bajo la dirección del Congreso y la Corte Suprema, el Presidente retirado de su cargo en lugar de seguir órdenes ilegales del Presidente. http://beltwayblips.dailyradar.com/story/coup_in_honduras/

    Dos días antes que el presidente Zelaya fue “depuesto”, Zelaya “despedido” de Honduras Militar Jefe de Estado Mayor, general Romeo Vásquez. El despido se produjo, no por no seguir las órdenes, pero por no apoyar el intento inconstitucional del Presidente Zelaya para extender su mandato. http://beltwayblips.dailyradar.com/story/coup_in_honduras/ Los jefes de los hondureños Ejército, la Armada y la Fuerza Aérea luego renunció antes que aceptar órdenes ilegales de Zelaya.

    Es posible que quiera saber quién más grandes partidarios del presidente Zelaya han sido en el pasado …. Hugo Chávez, el dictador venezolano que las cárceles y mata a candidatos de la oposición en su país, y Fidel Castro el dictador de Cuba. Lo que Chávez y Castro saber sobre “elecciones justas” no podría llenar un dedal. Chávez y Castro la cabeza dos de los gobiernos más represivos del mundo.

    Los informes de estado de Honduras, “El país tiene ahora otro presidente nombrado por el Congreso, Roberto Micheletti, quien insistió en que Zelaya fue removido legalmente por los Tribunales y el Congreso por violar la Constitución de Honduras y el intento de extender su propio gobierno.” Http:// news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090629/ap_on_go_pr_wh/us_us_honduras

    El derrocamiento de Zelaya se produjo horas antes de los comicios fueron a abrir, en un referéndum constitucional que Zelaya estaba presionando forma ininterrumpida, incluso después que la Corte Suprema y el Fiscal General dijo que era ilegal. La constitución prohíbe cambios en algunas de sus cláusulas, como la prohibición de un presidente que atienden a más de un término. http://www.startribune.com/world/49380887.html?elr=KArks:DCiUBcy7hUiacyKUnciaec8O7EyUr

    El Congreso votó para aceptar lo que dijo era la carta de renuncia de Zelaya, con los antiguos aliados de Zelaya, incluso volverse contra él. Congreso líder Roberto Micheletti fue juramentado en su cargo hasta 27 de enero, cuando concluya el mandato de Zelaya. Micheletti pertenece al Partido Liberal de Zelaya, pero con la oposición al presidente en el referéndum. “Mi lema será la conciliación de la gran familia de los hondureños … y un gran diálogo nacional”, dijo Micheletti después que el Congreso dio a los militares una larga ovación. http://www.startribune.com/world/49380887.html?elr=KArks:DCiUBcy7hUiacyKUnciaec8O7EyUr

    Es curioso que el presidente Obama deja de mencionar que la Corte Suprema de Honduras y el Fiscal General de Honduras “declaró” que las acciones del ex presidente eran inconstitucionales e ilegales. Tampoco Obama mencionar el hecho de que el nuevo presidente es “el ex Presidente Adjunto del Partido” y fue el miembro superior rango del Partido del ex presidente en el Congreso. “Depuesto” no es el término apropiado aquí, debemos referirnos al juicio político del presidente Zelaya – porque con la aprobación del Congreso de Honduras y la Corte Suprema de Honduras, que es lo que sucedió, Zelaya fue destituido no depuesto.

    Lo que ocurrió en Honduras no fue un golpe militar “. Los militares Honduarn no está ahora a cargo. El Congreso y la Corte Suprema de utilizar las fuerzas armadas para evitar una toma del poder por el ex Presidente Zeleya. El Congreso de Honduras, según la Ley de Honduras, ha nombrado a un sucesor legalmente para llenar el resto del mandato del ex presidente. El proceso que se siguió no es tan diferente que el proceso que se seguiría aquí en los Estados Unidos. El Gobierno de Honduras, con la excepción de Zeleya, permanece intacto. Esto no fue un “golpe de Estado” como el Gobierno no se sustituyen, simplemente eliminado a un individuo que insistió en seguir una línea de conducta inconstitucional e ilegal.

    Los informes de prensa internacional de la semana anterior incluir la siguiente información “, la resolución de lectura en la planta de [Congreso Nacional de Honduras] Zelaya acusa de” conducta irregular manifiesto “y” poner en peligro la actualidad el estado de derecho “, por su negativa a obedecer una sentencia del Tribunal Supremo en contra de un referéndum constitucional trató de sujetarla. Zelaya, un cercano aliado del presidente venezolano Hugo Chávez, se trata de eliminar los límites a los mandatos presidenciales a través de un referéndum, preparando el camino para su reelección. Más tarde el Congreso aprobó la eliminación de Zelaya, y citó los artículos constitucionales que dijo el jefe del Congreso asume la presidencia en estos casos. líder del Congreso hondureño, Roberto Micheletti, ha sido designado para reemplazar al derrocado presidente José Manuel Zelaya. http://www.presstv.ir/classic/detail.aspx?id=99290&sectionid=351020706

    Zelaya se negó a renunciar. Su retiro fue iniciado por el Congreso de Honduras y la Corte Suprema de Honduras, no la militar.

    Esta situación sería análoga a un presidente de Estados Unidos tratando de cumplir un mandato de tercera de las objeciones del Congreso, la Corte Suprema y una violación directa de la Constitución estadounidense. Tengo que asumir un presidente de Estados Unidos de intentar hacer algo así sería destituido y encarcelado, y que en caso necesario, los EE.UU. militares sería utilizada por el Congreso y la Corte Suprema para “proteger y defender” la Constitución.

    ¿Por qué este movimiento extraño y antidemocrático de los Obama. Un intento de pura y simple, por un presidente de Estados Unidos, para apoyar a un individuo que estaba tratando de subvertir la Constitución de su país y violar la Ley Electoral de Honduras muy juró defender.

    ¿Por qué es que Obama está adoptando Hugo Chávez y Fidel Castro, en lugar de al Gobierno democráticamente electo de Honduras. El Gobierno de Honduras, en las personas del Congreso de Honduras y la Corte Suprema de Honduras, que fueron elegidos democráticamente también … y las ramas “igualdad de Gobierno” no estaban tratando de subvertir la Constitución hondureña, pero fueron excersing el apropiado “separación de poderes” , proteger al pueblo de Honduras del intento ilegal de Zelaya de subvertir las leyes y extender su poder.

    Lo chocante para mí es que Obama se ha alineado con los dictadores, Chávez y Castro, otra vez. Chávez y Castro son a la vez megalomanics, tienen delirios de omnipotencia. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/megalomania. Es por eso que tanto Castro y Chávez han perseguido “cadena perpetua”, como presidentes de sus respectivas dictaduras, lo mismo que Zelaya estaba tratando de hacer en Honduras. Imagine a alguien realmente creer que no hay nadie más calificado para dirigir al pueblo en su país, nadie más, pero ellos mismos. En todo el país, nadie. Eso da miedo. No es de extrañar el pueblo hondureño Zelaya destituido. No es de extrañar el número 2 al hombre en su propio partido lo reemplazó con el apoyo del Congreso de Honduras.

    Pero ¿qué pasa con Obama? ¿Por qué se relacionan con estos meglomaniacs que creen que son omnipotentes? ¿Por qué del lado de los represores “en lugar de aquellos que están por la libertad.

    El ex presidente hondureño me recuerda de sus aliados, Chávez y Castro …. las normas sólo se aplican a los demás. La Constitución de Honduras sólo dice lo que quiere decir. No hay necesidad de una “separación de poderes” …. que quiere todo el poder para sí mismo. Tenemos un hombre muy peligroso en la Casa Blanca si está de acuerdo con Chávez y Castro y no con el imperio de la ley o la separación de poderes que se produce cuando usted tiene tres “ramas iguales” del Gobierno.

    Si Obama no puede distinguir cuál de las partes en Honduras actuó legalmente y que no … que no deben ser de su oficina. Un hombre que actúa de subvertir la Constitución de su país contra su Congreso País, Juzgados y militares, no está “en el” derecho y una vez destituido de su cargo, ya no es el “Presidente democráticamente elegido”.

    ¿Qué sigue para Obama? ¿Se unirá a Chávez en su amenaza de una invasión militar de Honduras? ¿Va a poner nuestras fuerzas armadas en estado de alerta? ¿Por qué está del lado de Obama con Castro y Chávez contra el pueblo de Honduras? http://article.wn.com/view/2009/06/29/Chavez_threatens_to_invade_as_Honduran_army_stages_coup/
    UPDATE: UPDATE: UPDATE
    Contrariamente a los informes de prensa, Honduras no ha sido “condenados” por su acción, de hecho los que han hablado en contra de Honduras son limitados en número – Obama, Hugo Chávez, Fidel Castro y el líder comunista de Nicaragua – Daniel Ortega.

    Aliados Eurpopean de Estados Unidos no se han pronunciado contra el Gobierno de Honduras – de hecho, la BBC informa de lo siguiente:

    El presidente interino Roberto Micheletti ha impuesto un toque de queda nocturno en Honduras, horas después de prestar juramento pulg

    El orador Congreso asumió el cargo después de que tropas derrocado líder electo Manuel Zelaya y lo hizo volar a Costa Rica.

    La remoción del señor Zelaya llegó en medio de una lucha de poder sobre sus planes para el cambio constitucional.

    Sr. Zelaya, que había estado en el cargo desde 2006, quiso celebrar un referéndum que podría haber llevado a la prórroga de su mandato de cuatro años no renovables.

    Las encuestas para el referéndum se ha debido a abrir la madrugada del domingo – pero las tropas lugar se lo llevó del palacio presidencial y lo hizo volar fuera del país.

    El derrocamiento de Manuel Zelaya ha sido criticado por vecinos de la región y los EE.UU..

    Sr. Micheletti dijo en una conferencia de prensa que el toque de queda en todo el país se impone para el domingo y el lunes, que va desde 2100 (0300 GMT) a 0600 (1200 GMT) en cada noche.

    Días de tensión

    La juramentación de Roberto Micheletti – constitucionalmente segundo en la línea de la Presidencia – fue recibido con aplausos en el Congreso.

    En un discurso, dijo que no había asumido el poder “bajo la ignominia de un golpe de Estado”.

    El ejército había cumplido con la Constitución, dijo, y había llegado a la presidencia “como resultado de un proceso de transición absolutamente legal”.

    Congreso dijo que servir hasta el 27 de enero, cuando mandato del señor Zelaya debía expirar. Las elecciones presidenciales están previstas para el 29 de noviembre y el Sr. Micheletti prometió se iban por delante.

    Tanto el Congreso y los tribunales se habían opuesto a referéndum el Sr. Zelaya, que pidió a los hondureños a apoyar una votación sobre los cambios constitucionales sin especificar junto con las elecciones de noviembre.

    Las tensiones sobre el tema se ha ido en aumento por varios días, con el ejército negarse a ayudar con los preparativos para el referéndum.

    Justo antes del amanecer del domingo, las tropas irrumpieron en la residencia del presidente. Había confusión sobre su paradero durante varias horas antes de que se presentó en Costa Rica.

    Congreso dijo que había votado a favor de destituirlo debido a su “violaciónes repetido de la Constitución y la ley y la inobservancia de las órdenes y sentencias de las instituciones de Gobierno”.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8123513.stm

    UPDATE UPDATE UPDATE

    Un final victorioso para el pueblo hondureño – El nuevo presidente asume el cargo – Devuelve Depuesto Zelaya al exilio
    Publicado el 30 de enero 2010 por mcauleysworld | Editar
    Nuevo presidente de Honduras, tome posesión del cargo; ex dirigente se exilia

    Como nuevo Presidente de Honduras, Porfirio Lobo, asumió el cargo, deshonrado y depuesto ex presidente Manuel Zelaya voló al exilio permanente en la República Dominicana el pasado miércoles. Un acuerdo, negociado a principios de semana, ha permitido Zelaya para volver al exilio y evitar un juicio penal por algunos de los cargos que llevaron a su destitución por el verano pasado militar.

    Zelaya, acompañado por su esposa, dos hijos y el presidente Leonel Fernández de República Dominicana, Honduras dejó pocas horas después de Porfirio Lobo fue juramentado como presidente.

    En virtud de un acuerdo negociado por el Presidente Fernández, Zelaya acordó abandonar la Embajada de Brasil en Tegucigalpa, donde se había escondido desde el pasado septiembre, y para salir del país como Presidente Lobo tomó juramento de su cargo.

    “Estaremos de vuelta”, gritó Zelaya antes de subir al avión. comentarios Zeleya parecía hueco ya que hay poco apoyo para su regreso en Honduras.

    Lobo, un ranchero conservador elegido en noviembre, escoltado Zelaya al aeropuerto en una larga caravana, de acuerdo a la televisión hondureña.

    “Dejamos atrás el pasado y ahora mira hacia el futuro”, dijo el presidente Lobo después de prestar juramento pulg-Pero usted no puede avanzar hacia el futuro sin sanar las heridas del pasado “.

    Lobo primer acto como presidente fue firmar un decreto que concedía amnistía política para Zelaya. La medida, aprobada un día antes por el Congreso de Honduras, no conceda amnistía a los cargos de malversación que el ex presidente puede hacer frente.

    La Corte Suprema exoneró Honduarn seis altos oficiales militares, entre ellos el jefe del Estado Mayor, al dictaminar que no actuaron con malicia cuando se redondea Zelaya el 28 de junio y lo hizo volar a Costa Rica. El fallo que se esperaba que los oficiales militares habían estado actuando por instrucciones de la Corte Suprema y el Congreso Honduarn. El fallo de la Suprema Corte de Honduras rechaza las alegaciones formuladas por Zelaya en la prensa internacional.

    Posteriormente Zelaya, al amparo de la noche y con la asistencia del Gobierno brasileño, se coló de nuevo en Honduras y se escondió en la Embajada de Brasil. oferta vergonzoso de Zelaya para reclamar su oficina fueron infructuosos.

    El verano pasado la Corte Suprema de Honduras ordenó el arresto de Zelaya por abuso de poder, la traición y otros cargos después de que él se negó a abandonar los planes para un referéndum que fue declarado ilegal y que el Congreso de Honduras dijo que estaba destinado a ayudarlo a mantenerse en el poder más allá de la una límite de plazo dispuesto por la Constitución hondureña.

    En el momento el Gobierno democráticamente electo de Honduras de acuerdo con la Corte Suprema de Honduras y Zelaya se negó a reincorporar a la oficina a pesar de las denuncias internacionales.

    Inexplicablemente, los Estados Unidos suspendió la ayuda a Honduras y tiró de las visas de algunos funcionarios hondureños que trabajan en el gobierno interino, un gobierno liderado por el presidente Roberto Micheletti. A pesar de que Micheletti, el segundo miembro rango de partido político de Zelaya, un partido que se volvió contra el depuesto líder y apoyaron su derrocamiento, estaba actuando de una manera constitucionalmente su caso, el Adminsitration Obama puso del lado de Zelaya y cortar la ayuda a uno de los países más pobres del hemisferio occidental.

    La presión diplomática contra Honduras disminuyó incluso antes que el presidente Lobo ganó las elecciones, una elección que estaba prevista mucho antes de la detención de Zelaya por comportamiento ilegal.

    Hubo señales el miércoles que la parte de la tierra pronto normalizar las relaciones con el nuevo gobierno. En los Estados Unidos, la indignación pública contra la postura de la Adminsitration de Obama en apoyo de Zelaya había atado las manos Administraciones e impidió cualquier tipo de apoyo significativo para el depuesto dictador.

    aliado de Obama, el dictador Hugo Chávez de Venzuella, había amenazado con una invasión a Honduras para restablecer a Zelaya al poder.

    El presidente izquierdista de El Salvador, Mauricio Funes, no asistió a la inauguración, pero ha dicho que restaurar los lazos diplomáticos una vez el presidente Lobo asumió el cargo.

    Presidente Lobo dijo el martes que esperaba que los Estados Unidos pronto se restablecería millones de dólares en ayuda humanitaria.

    Un alto funcionario del Departamento de Estado dijo que aunque el gobierno de EE.UU. considera que la primera se mueve del nuevo gobierno hondureño como “positivo”, no ha tomado una decisión sobre las ayudas.

    (CONGRESO DE CONTACTO AQUÍ Y LA DEMANDA QUE AYUDA HONDURENA ser reintegrados AHORA: http://www.usa.gov/Contact/Elected.shtml)

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